The construction of the ship was commissioned on 13 December 1775, and finished by July 10 of the next year. The Templar, Nicholas Biddle, was named as her Captain in October of the same year.
Due to scarcity of seamen, the USS Randolph was staffed by British sailors, who were imprisoned in Philadelphia, and set sail in February 1777. She reached Charlestown almost a month later, her masts broken, and her crew struck by fever. The crew had also mutinied during the journey.
Subsequently, the USS Randolph was repaired at the docks, but the mainmast was struck by lightning twice when close to completion. Lightning rods were installed, and she began her military career in August.
When the USS Randolph was seaworthy again, Biddle began using her to further the Templars' goals. He began raiding the coast of Nantucket, claiming it was a Loyalist post, despite being controlled by the Continental Army. He hoped to become Admiral of the Continental Navy, granting him more control. When Connor arrived to investigate, the USS Randolph fled, and left Connor to deal with other ships.
Sometime later, the USS Randolph was assigned to escort La Belladonna, a French ship in the Bahamas, covertly bringing supplies for the Americans. Midway through the journey, Biddle left La Belladonna on her own, and sent his Templar allies to sink the ship. Despite this, Connor arrived and aided the French in sinking several Templar ships and a Man O' War, while Biddle watched from a safe distance.
In March 1778, the Assassin flagship, the Aquila – captained by Connor – located the USS Randolph in the Bahamas and gave chase. Biddle led the Aquila to an ambush, where the USS Randolph and two Men-o-War attacked her. After dealing with the Men-o-War, Connor had his crew destroy the masts of the Randolph, before he boarded the ship.
The entire crew of the USS Randolph was decimated during the Aquila's attack, while Connor dueled Biddle, first on the top deck and later in the belly of the ship. After besting the Templar, Connor fulfilled Biddle's last wish, and set off an explosion in the USS Randolph, causing her to sink with her Captain.