Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BCE – 28 September 48 BCE), also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He was also the son-in-law of Julius Caesar, having married his daughter Julia.
Pompey was a close ally of the pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes during his exile from Egypt. As a gift of the alliance, Pompey comissioned a shield and in 55 BCE, sent General Aulus Gabinius to lead an army to help the pharaoh restore his throne. These Roman soldiers would later become the Gabiniani who settled down in Alexandria to protect the pharaohs.
During the Roman Civil War, Pompey was defeated by Caesar, causing him to flee. In 48 BCE in the Aegean Sea, Pompey was assisted by Aya and Phoxidas, who had been sent by Cleopatra to initiate an alliance. Pompey accepted the offer and declared that his fleet will make way for Egypt immediately.
Shorty after his arrival in Egypt, Pompey was ambushed by Lucius Septimius and the Gabiniani sent by Ptolemy XIII, Cleopatra's younger brother. Pompey was slain and beheaded by Septimius, despite him having served the Roman general in 67 BCE in the Mediterranean Sea.
After his death, Pompey's head was brought back to Alexandria by Septimius. Ptolemy XIII hoped to use the head as means to favor from Julius Caesar, who had pursued Pompey to Egypt. The plan ultimately failed, as Julius Caesar later sided with Cleopatra against Ptolemy.
- Historically, Pompey died in Pelusium, a city located at the eastern extremes of the Nile Delta. In Origins however, he died in the Herakleion Nome. Also, it was said that Caesar planned in pardoning Pompey for his actions once he captured or surrendered to him, as a means of an alliance.