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This article is about the capital city of France. You may be looking for the Trojan prince Paris.

"One day, when all this is over, I will invite you to Paris to stay with me and my family. She is the most beautiful city in all the world, Connor, full of art and culture, women and wine. But she is sick on the inside, black and rotting..."
―Marquis de Lafayette, 1778.[src]


Paris is the capital and largest city of France. During the French Revolution, the city was divided in seven districts: Le Louvre, Île de la Cité, Le Marais, La Bièvre, Les Invalides, Quartier Latin, and Ventre de Paris.

History

Formation

Paris was founded during the 3rd century BCE, when a Celtic tribe named the Parisii built a fortified settlement on the Île de la Cité.[1]

Roman era

In 52 BCE, the Romans, led by Julius Caesar, conquered the Parisii Celts who inhabited the area and built a town on the Seine river, named Lutetia Parisiorum ("Swamp of the Parisii"). In the late 3rd century, Paris and its surrounding region were converted to Christianity. According to the legend, the bishop of Paris, Denis, was beheaded and martyred at Montmartre by the Romans around 250 CE. Afterwards the saint's corpse walked to the village of Catolacus which became Saint-Denis, carrying his own head.[2]

In the 5th century, the Roman Empire was in decline; the Franks subsequently captured Paris in 486.

Middle Ages

In 558, the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés was constructed near Paris and will become one of the richiest abbey in France.[1]

In the middle of the 7th century, the nobility funded the Hôtel-Dieu to serve as a refuge for the poor and sick. It became the first hospital of the city.[1]

During the 10th century, the Kings of France established their residence in the Conciergerie on the Île de la Cité.[1]

In 1130, the King Louis VI of France reinforced a wooden tower of which became the stone fortress of Grand Châtelet near the Place de Grève. Louis also ordered the construction of Les Halles and of the church and cemetery of Holy Innocents which became the cemetery for all churches.[1]

In 1160 began the construction of the Notre-Dame Cathedral which was only ended in 1345. Notre-Dame was one of the first buildings to use flying buttresses in Europe.[1]

During the Middle Ages, Paris grew rapidly and became one of the largest cities in Europe. In response to its expansion, King Philip Augustus constructed the Louvre fortress and a wall surrounding the town during the end of the 12th century. During his reign various markets and fairs were established in a place called Les Champeaux which will become known as Les Halles.[1]

In 1240, returning from the Crusades, the Templars Order built their headquarters in Paris. The fortress was known as the Temple of Paris.[1]

In 1242, King Louis IX of France ordered the construction of the Sainte-Chapelle to house the crown of thorns of Jesus Christ. The monument was finished in 1248 and served as the royal chapel. The Sainte-Chapelle was also the entry of the headquarters of the sworn ennemies of the Templars, the Assassins Brotherhood. The Brotherhood, established under the Île Saint-Louis, used the underground tunnels to navigate easily through the city.[1]

In 1246, King Louis IX invented the position of Provost of the Merchants, which served as the mayor of the city of Paris. Robert de Sorbon, King's chaplain, sought to facilitate the education of underpriviliged children in theology. Louis IX gave him an house in the rue Coupe Gueule which was transformed as the university Sorbonne.[1]

In 1296, the King Philip IV of France ordered the construction of the Palais de Justice in the Palais de la Cité, which served as juridical court for the Parlement de Paris.[1]

Tragedy of Jacques de Molay 15

Jacques de Molay burning at the stake

In 1307, the Assassin Mentor Guillaume de Nogaret persuaded the King Philip to arrest the Templar Order and of their Grand Master Jacques de Molay. The 13 October, the Assassins, disguised as flemish mercenaries, attacked the Temple de Paris with the French troops. The Master Assassin Thomas de Carneillon led the attack and tried to take Sword of Eden, a powerful piece of Eden, and also the Codex Pater Intellectus, de Molay's writings . During the attack, Carneillon fought Jacques de Molay's advisor but was out of action after he received a blast from the Sword of Eden. The advisor hid the Sword and the Codex in Jacques de Molay's vault before be killed by Carneillon who did found the artefacts. De Molay was arrested and imprisonned. In his cell, he hid the Heart, an artefact which unlock the abilities of the Sword of Eden. Jacques de Molay, who was also a Sage, an reincarnation of the First Civilization Aita, decided to reformed the Templar Order as a secret society revealing the secrets of the First Civilisation to nine Templars. On 18 March 1314, Jacques de Molay was burned at the stake before the King Philip and the Pope Clement V on the Île de la Cité. In his last words, de Molay cursed the the Pope and the royal family to the thirteen generation. De Molay's death marked the dissolution of the Knights Templar as a public organization and influenced their conversion into a secret faction.[1]

In 1334, the Abbot of Cluny purchased the remains of a Roman thermal bath and turn it into a townhouse. The building was known as the Hôtel de Cluny.[1]

During the 14th century, the Kings of France entered in the Hundred Years' War against the Kings of England. The attacked of the English troops created an eonomic instability, leading in 1358 to a Jacquerie, a peasant revolt. Other uprisings followed during the rest of the war. The King Charles V of France decided to reinforce the defense of Paris in this context. He deplaced the royal residence in the fortress of the Louvre and using the stones from the carries of Paris, he ordered the construction of the Bastille, a fort which will protected the east side of the city from English attack.[1]

At the end of the 14th century, the scrivener and alchemist Nicolas Flamel established in Paris one of his laboratory under Notre-Dame. Thank to the Book of Abraham, he created the Philosopher's stone and the Elixir of life, which made him, according the legends, rich and immortal.[3] With his fortune, Flamel financed the reconstruction of the Holy Innocent's Cemetery. Before his death, he seperated the Book of Abraham in two and giving one half to the nephew of his wife, Pernelle Flamel. In 1418, Flamel was buried in the Church of Saint-Jacques-la-Boucherie before be deplaced in the Holy Innocent's Cemetery where his wife was buried.[1]

JoanArc

Jeanne d'Arc

At the begin of the 15th century, Paris was taken by the Burgundians, the French allies of the English during the Hundred Years' War. The heir of the crown Charles established his new capital in Bourges. In 1429, Jeanne d'Arc, a young french farmer who was an ally of the French Assassins, led the French Army against the English, wielding De Molay's Sword of Eden and the heart. She besieged Paris with her troops but she was wounded by an crossbow bolt during the battle and the siege was removed.[4]

After the end Hundred Years' War, the kings of France returned in Paris.

In 1485, the abbot of Cluny and bishop Jacques d'Amboise renovated the Hôtel de Cluny which became a luxurious guest house. Between 1475 and 1507, the Archbishop of Sens built his own hôtel particulier near the bank of the Seine.[1]

Renaissance

PL DestructiveCriticism

Paris during the Renaissance

During the Renaissance, France was ruled by King Louis XII, though he left the kingdom under the charge of his courtiers, who were secretly allied with the Templars. A group of Italian Assassins, sent by their MentorEzio Auditore da Firenze, traveled to Paris to battle that Templar influence. They protected the scolar and Mentor Desiderius Erasmus against Templar agents and revealed that one of their brother was captured by the Templars. They interrogated the cardinal Georges d'Amboise, who gave them a list of ministers who worked with the Borgia, the leader of the Roman Rite of the Templar Order. The Assassins killed them and tried to saved their brother in a manor near Paris. He was tortured and died from his injuries but in his last breath he revealed that he gave false informations and that the Assassins must be wary about the Orsini.[5]

In 1527, the Italian Assassin Giovanni Borgia and the Hermetic practitioner Maria Amiel traveled to the Louvre in order to find the second half of "Book of Abraham". They only found a copy made by human hands. Afterwards, they visited the Flamel tomb in Paris' Holy Innocents' Cemetery, but only found it devoid of bodies, or any sign of the Book.[3]

Under the reign of Francis I of France, Paris had a more italian and Renaissance style. The Louvre and the Hôtel de Ville were renovated, the Saint-Jacques Tower and the Church of Saint-Eustache were constructed and a new bridge was built for the Hôtel-Dieu.[1]

ACUDB - The Red Ghost of the Tuileries

Portrait of Johannes Metzger

Francis' son, Henry II of France also renovated the Louvre but with his wife, Catherine de' Medici, they also built another palace in les Halles with an astronomy tower known as the Medici Tower. The Queen of France was the patron of Nostradamus, a famous seer in Paris. During his life, Nostradamus discovered the robe of the Assassin Thomas de Carneillon and locked it under the Île Saint-Louis. He separated the seals and hid them through the city leaving mysterious indications on their localization. Nostradamus also predicted the death of the King, who was wounded by the shard of a spear in the eye after a jousting tournament in Paris in 1559. The King died some days later from his injuries. His widow became the Regent of France, and as she found the Louvre too big, too cold, and too crowded, she decided to build of new royal residence, the Tuileries Palace. Many people were expropriate from the site of construction. One of them, Johannes Metzger, a German butcher, refused to leave his house. For this, he was arrested and executed in 1561. Before his death, he swore that he would return to exact revenge on the future palace's occupants. Soon after his death, supernatural appearances and disturbances around the palace were attributed to Metzger's vengeful spirit, known throughout the palace as the Red Ghost. [1]

After the death of Henry II, the crown was taken successively by his three sons, which created a period of instability which was increased by the Wars of Religion between the catholics and the protestants in France. Even after the wedding between the Catholic Margaret of France, daughter of Henry II, and the Protestant King Henry III of Navarre, which reunited the protestant leaders in Paris for the ceremony, a serie of events led to the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre the 24th August 1572. The protestant leaders were killed and in the hysteria the population also. Henry III of Navarre succeeded to escape to the slaughter. In 1578 began the construction of a new brigde to connect the Île de la Cité with the two banks of the Seine. This bridge was known as the Pont Neuf (new bridge) but was also known as the pont des pleurs (the bridge of tears) as the King Henry III of France inaugurated the construction after the funerals of two of his Mignons. In 1589, Henry III was stabbed by the Catholic fanatic Jacques Clément. On his deathbed, he designated his brother-in-law Henry III of Navarre as his heir.

After a long siege of Paris, the now Henry IV of France decided to convert to Catholicism in 1593, supposedly stating that "Paris is well worth a mass". Converted in the city and ally with the first president of the Parliament of Paris, Achille de Harlay, this action stabilized the country, ending the War of Religions.[1]

Under his reign, Paris was embellished with new buildings. He connected the Louvre with the Palais des Tuileries. In 1601, he ordered the construction of the Place Dauphine behind the Palais de Justice and gave it to Achille de Harlay. In 1605 began the construction of Place Royale on the very field where Henry II was mortally wounded. The Place served as a square with 36 pavillons. The same year, Margaret of France, the exwife of the King installed herself in the Hôtel de Sens. In 1606, her young lover Gabriel Dat de Saint-Julien was assassinated before the gate of the hôtel by the Comte de Vermont, a jealous suitor and former lover of hers. The 14th May 1610, Henry IV was assassinated in Paris on his carriage by the Catholic fanatic François Ravaillac.[1]

Bourbon era

After the death of Henry IV, his eight-years-old son became Louis XIII of France. His mother, Marie de' Medici, became the Regent of France during his minority. She ordered the creation of an equestrian statue of her dead husband and began the construction of the Pont Marie. In 1612, she purchased the domaine of the Duke of Piney-Luxembourg in Paris and the architect Salomon de Brosse constructed for her the Luxembourg Palace with gardens. In 1622, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal of Richelieu became the principal of the Sorbonne and as the buildings were falling in ruins, in 1629 he began the renovation of the University. In exchange of his expenses, he received the promise to be buried in the University's Chapel. Richelieu also ordered the construction of the Palais-Cardinal as his residence. From 1624 to his death, Richelieu was chosen by Louis XIII as his chief-minister, centralizing the French state and strengthening its power. The Bastille began to be used as a prison under Louis XIII. As Richelieu died in 1642, he was buried in the Sorbonne and his Palace was given to the royal family becoming the Palais-Royal.[1]

Louis-xiv-lebrun

Louis XIV, the Sun King

Louis XIV of France began his reign when he was 5 years old, so the power was given to his mother, the Regent Anne of Austria, and his chief-minister, the Cardial Jules Mazarin. At his death, Mazarin left 2 million livres to construted the College of the Four Nations which served as a university for Paris. The science flourished in the city, in 1648 the Tour Saint-Jacques was used by Blaise Pascale for his experiments and in 1667 began the construction of the Paris Observatory. In 1671 began the construction of Les Invalides, an hospital for war veterans. During the 17th century, Le Marais became a fashionable district as the aristocrats began to constructed their hôtels-particuliers, like the chancellor Fieubet in 1676 and his Hôtel Fieubet. At the beginning of the reign, a revolt known as the Fronde occured in Paris, deciding the King to leave the city and installing the royal family in Versailles in 1682 where he constructed a palace from the hunt lodge of his father. The Bastille also became a political prison for turbulent aristocrats. In 1686, the Sicilian chef Procopio Cutò opened the Café Procope which will became one of the most famous cafés of the city. Louis XIV ordered the construction of the Place Vendôme to create a monument to his glory and embellish Paris with an equestrian statue of himself.[1]

At the beginning of the 18th century, Louis-Dominique Cartouche became famous as a highwayman, stealing from the rich and giving to the poors near Paris. In 1721, he was captured and sentenced to death. His lover Mireille, who was the leader of the French Assassins, saved Cartouche by faking his death on the breaking wheel. Later Cartouche became an Assassin, and his name as his diaries were passed on to two other Assassins during the 18th century.[1]

During the 18th century, the construction continued in Paris. In 1744, Louis XV of France suffered from a serious illness. If he survived, he made the vow to constructed a new church on the ruins on the Abbey of St Genevieve. In 1755 began the construction of the new church and was ended in 1790. In 1752, the first stone of the École Militaire was laid under the overseer of Madame de Pompadour, Louis XV's mistress. In 1755 began the construction of the Halle aux Blés, which served as a grain storage building for the city. Louise Françoise de Bourbon, a legitimized daughter of Louis XIV, ordered the construction of the Palais Bourbon which was purchased by Louis XV in 1756. In 1759, the Café Théâtre opened in the Île de la Cité, becoming one of the premier coffee house of Paris. The Assassins purchased and used it as their intelligence-gathering network. In 1772 was finished the Place Louis XV near the jardins des Tuileries. Two years before, a fireworks display was made for the celebration of the wedding of the dauphin Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette on the place but an accident provoked the death of 132 persons.[1]

Deconstructed 6

Shay witnessing Benjamin Franklin being chase by criminals

But Paris was also the center of the contestation of the King's power. Many philosophers of Enlightenment reunited in cafés, like the Procope or the Régence to discuss of politics and philosophy. Among them Voltaire, Diderot and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. This last witnessed the pauvrety of some districts, describing the district Saint-Marcel as "dirty, stinking little streets, wretched black houses, a general air of squalor and poverty, beggars, carters, menders of clothes, sellers of herb-drinks and old hats." In the Saint-Denis district, a counter socity known as the Cour des Miracles reuniting the beggars and the marginal people of the city. The Cour had his own chief known as the King of Beggars.[1] The American philosopher Benjamin Franklin joined his French colleagues in the cafés discussions during his diplomatical mission in France for the United States during the American Revolution. In December 1776, Franklin was targeted by Parisian criminals but was saved by the former Assassin turned Templar Shay Cormac. Cormac searched a way to join an Assassin reunion in the Versailles palace and recovered a Precursor box, so as Franklin was in debt with Cormac for saving his life, the diplomat autorirized the Templar to follow him to the royal residence.[6] During the reign of Louis XVI, the corps buried in the Holy Innocents' Cemetery were deplace in the quarries which will become the Catacombs of Paris. In 1783, the first Montgolfier flights was experiment in Paris.[1]

French Revolution

From 1789 to 1799, a period of social and political upheaval occurred in France due to the extravagance of the aristocracy. This, coupled by famine and economic turmoil, gradually enraged the French working class and inevitably sparked a revolution against the monarchy and upper classes. The Assassin Arno Dorian lived in Paris during the Revolution.[1]

19th century

In the 19th century, Napoleon I embellished the city with monuments to military glory. It became the European capital of fashion, and the scene of two more revolutions in 1830 and 1848. Under Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon I, and his Prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1852 and 1870 the center of Paris was rebuilt with wide new avenues, squares, and parks, and the city was expanded to its present limits in 1860. In the latter part of the century, in the Belle Epoch era, millions of tourists came to see the Paris International Expositions and the new Eiffel Tower.

Sometime towards the end of the 19th century, Samuel Liddell Mathers, accompanied by the disembodied being of William Robert Woodman, met one of the Secret Chiefs in Paris. The Chief, who wore a ring marked with the Templar insignia, informed Mathers that his Order's partnership with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn had ended.[7]

20th century

In the 20th century, Paris suffered bombardment in World War I and German occupation from 1940 until 1944 in World War II. Between the two wars, Paris was the capital of modern art and a magnet for intellectuals, writers and artists from around the world.

Modern era

Abstergo Industries maintained a secret laboratory in Paris for the purpose of researching Precursor artifacts and genetic material until it was destroyed in October 2014 by a team of Assassins led by Gavin Banks.[8]

In November, Eric Cooper set up an Assassin headquarters in Paris to help infiltrate a data hub for the Helix, Abstergo Entertainment's upcoming cloud-based game service.[9]

Gallery

References