Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832)[1] was the son of Napoleon I and, as Napoleon II, the disputed second Emperor of the French in 1815.[2]

When Napoleon I was forced to abdicate the throne on 22 June 1822 in the wake of his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, he declared his son as his successor. However, the victorious coalition were determined to dissolve the French Empire and refused to accept Napoleon II's accession.[3]