Mesopotamia is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq plus Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.


In the 6th century BCE, Pythagoras and his protege, Kyros of Zarax, traveled through the ancient cities of Babylonia, a state in Mesopotamia, in Pythagoras' quest for knowledge.[1]

In the 5th century BCE, Mesopotamia was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Emperor Xerxes I, with the aid of the Persian Templars, suppressed revolts in the city of Babylon.[2]

In the 4th century BCE, Mesopotamia was conquerored by Alexander the Great, who used a Staff of Eden, given to him by the Templars, to create one of the largest empires in history.[3] However, on 13 June, 323 BCE, the Babylonian Assassin Iltani infiltrated the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon, where Alexander was residing, poisoned him and retrieved the Staff. Soon afterwards, Alexander's empire began to crumble.[4]

In 826, Thābit ibn Qurra, an Arabic mathematician, physician, astronomer and physicist, was born in the Mesopotamian city of Harran.[5]