In 1511, the Spanish Army, led by Pedro Navarro, conquered Tripoli, the capital city of Libya. The Ottoman Assassins came seeking his expertise in weaponry and explosives, and returned to investigate his apparent kidnapping. They also seized the city from Templar control, installing several Assassin Dens.
In 1796, the United States and the Ottoman province of Tripoli signed a treaty, protecting Americans sailing in the Mediterranean Sea from their privateers. The treaty included a clause mentioning that religious differences between the two countries were no reason for them to go to war.
Sometime before 1805, Tavis Olier, the Black Cross, was sent to Tripoli to infiltrate the palace of Sultan Selim III to investigate the Koh-i-Noor but was captured and imprisoned. Believed dead, a new Black Cross, Solomon Bolden, was appointed, who eventually discovered clues about Tavis' survival and presence in Tripoli. However, Bolden was killed by the Sultan's men and his travel companion, Jan van der Graff, whom Selim believed to be another Templar infiltrator, was put in Tavier's cell.
During the three following years, the Black Cross took van der Graff as his student, teaching him the Templar tenets. On July 29, 1808, Olier sacrificed himself to allow van der Graff to escape. Afterwards, van der Graff successfully retrieved the Koh-i-Noor after tricking the Assassins by handing them an empty box.