The Inca Empire, known by the natives as Tawantinsuyu (Quechua: The Four Regions), was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The capital of the Empire of the Incas was Cusco in modern-day Peru, their emperor was known as the Sapa Inca and the official language was the Quechua. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century, and the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish conquistadors in 1572.
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges and bordering the Pacific Ocean. Their empire included, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and central Chile, and a small part of southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Europe.
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