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The Gabiniani were 2 000 Roman legionaries and 500 Roman auxiliary cavalry left in Egypt by the general Aulus Gabinius after his military restoration of Ptolemy XII on the Egyptian throne in 55 BC. The soldiers were left to protect the king, but they soon adopted the manners of their new country and became completely alienated from the Roman Republic. After the death of Ptolemy XII in 51 BC they helped his son Ptolemy XIII in the power struggle against his sister Cleopatra and even involved Julius Caesar, the powerful supporter of Cleopatra, in the Alexandrinian war (48-47 BC) in violent battles.

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