Fort Monmouth was a fortified coastline located in the American frontier, at a northern edge of New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, it was occupied by the British Army until the Assassin Ratonhnhaké:ton infiltrated and liberated the fort for the Continental Army sometime before the end of the war.
Built by the British before the Revolutionary War, the fort was designed to strategically watch for naval movement near to New York, as well as to safely quarter military units outside of the cities in the event of necessary action to either colony. On the hilltops surrounding the fort, there were already several farm houses, which were likely used as cheaper supplies of food and lumber.
Following the start of the war, it was used to keep control over Monmouth, but was eventually obtained by the Continental Army before June 1778. At that time, the fort was the base of operations surrounding the Battle of Monmouth, where George Washington and Marquis de Lafayette gathered soldiers prior to the attack. Following the fight, it remained a strategic point for the revolution until the end of the war.
Layout and armaments
Laid out beneath the hills at the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, the fort was organized solely as a naval watch. Its two official entrances included the main one at its northernmost point, meant for the use of infantry and cavalry, and a side entrance near to the coast for small boats coming from larger vessels. Also available were two unplanned entrances – a ledge near to the coast that could be used to access the fort silently, and a large drop on a northern watchtower from a tree. Overlooking the carved walls were six separate watchtowers, each exclusively near to the land, but able to watch the ocean due to the angle of the fortification. Facing the ocean were six cannons, located on the walls, and guarding the main entrance was a large gate and several patrols.
In accordance to the colonial age, each structure was made of wood, which was the major resource controlled at the location in addition to livestock. Within the boundaries were two stone buildings, used for quartering the troops, as well as one large wooden counterpart near to the bottom as a storage facility. Following this, the facility also housed a gunpowder reserve and various carts.
- A Fort Monmouth was built by the United States' military in 1928, but bore no significant relation.
- Despite being owned by the Continental Army during the Battle of Monmouth, Ratonhnhaké:ton had the option not to liberate it, and it could still be presided over by British soldiers during that time.