Ferdinand VII of Spain (14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was also the husband of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies.
In 1808, King Ferdinand was overthrown by Napoleon when the latter invaded Spain, appointing his brother, Joseph, as King of Spain. However, by 1813, British, Spanish and Portuguese forces managed to push the French out of Spain, restoring Ferdinand to the throne. After becoming King again, Ferdinand reconstituted the Spanish Inquisition, which had been abolished by Joseph.
In 1820, Ferdinand was ousted by a military uprising, starting a period during which a liberal government ruled Spain known as the Trienio Liberal. However, this period ended in 1823 when a French army invaded Spain and reinstated the King's absolute power.