On July 12, 1790, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was instituted. This legislation determined that God's representatives would no longer answer to the Pope in Rome, but instead to France and its Revolutionary Government. They would be paid and overseen by the state. As a result, the Church became part of French administration, which sought to ensure the loyalty of its representatives to the values of the Revolution. Those who accepted this new order had to take a solemn oath "to the nation, the law and the king." Many priests did not view these changes favorably, and refused to take the oath. Pope Pius VI sent his condemnation of the act the next day. Those who refused the oath were labeled "non-juring" or "refractory" priests. Many who refused were physically attacked for their piety to Rome.