Oliver Cromwell was the leader of the parliamentary forces against Charles I in the English Civil War, and contributed to the dismantling of the Stuart monarchy. After helping to establish the British Isles as a republic, Cromwell served as the first chairman of the Council of State during the republican Commonwealth period.

Cromwell was also a major player that helped the First Anglo-Dutch War. Despite his political and military successes, Cromwell faced the difficult task of appeasing both the Royalist and republican sides in Parliament. He refused to be a king and was careful to keep his republican officers satisfied. Cromwell attempted a new constitutional arrangement, but provoked an intense republican reaction.

During the late 1650s, Cromwell's health deteriorated rapidly. He contracted malaria and died on September 3, 1658. After his death, the Stuart monarchy began to restore itself in the country. The new Parliament ordered Cromwell's posthumous execution and a corpse who may or may have not been Cromwell's was hung up at Tyburn in London as a symbolic end to Cromwell's Parliamentary reign and the return of the Stuart monarch in England.

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