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Catherine de' Medici (Italian: Caterina de' Medici, French: Catherine de Médicis; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II. She was the great-granddaughter of Lorenzo de' Medici.

In 1564, Catherine de' Medici ordered the construction of the Tuileries Palace, after deeming the Louvre too small to accommodate her court. According to legend, she expelled the German butcher Johannes Metzger from the site intended for the palace's construction. Upon his death, Metzger swore that he would get revenge on Catherine and became the Red Ghost, haunting the palace throughout its construction. The astrologer Cosimo Ruggieri informed Catherine that the construction would lead to her ruin, which it did on 5 January 1559.

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