The Assassin Brotherhood, also known as the Assassin Order, Liberalis Circulum (Circle of Liberals) during the time of the Roman Empire, or Hashshashin during the Crusades, was an organized order of assassins and sworn enemies of the Templars, against whom they fought a continuous, recondite war throughout the entirety of recorded human history. Whereas the Templars sought to save humanity from itself by controlling free will, the Assassin Order fought to ensure the survival of freedom, as it allowed for the progression of new ideas and the growth of individuality. The Assassins have also recently became enemies of the Instruments of the First Will, a cult hellbent on re-establishing the Isu's absolute rule over humanity.
The Order believes in a strong set of values that strictly govern their way of life, referred to as "the Creed". This Creed consists of three tenets:
- "Stay your blade from the flesh of an innocent."
- "Hide in plain sight, be one with the crowd."
- "Never compromise the Brotherhood."
These tenets permeated every aspect of the Assassins' daily life, as well as their fight for "peace in all things". The Assassins carry out their duties through political, strategic assassination, in the hope that killing one individual will lead to the salvation of thousands. They also believe that they fight on the behalf of those who do not possess the abilities, resources, or knowledge to speak out against those who abuse their power.
Ideals and goals
Throughout its long existence, the Assassin Order has opposed tyrants and oppressors alike, priding itself as a "champion of the poor" and downtrodden, while assuming ideals such as equality and freedom and other principles associated with human rights. Though these principles may encourage the view that the Assassins are, like their sworn enemies the Templars, founded on a distinct set of ideals, at its roots, the Assassins' philosophy is grounded not in idealism, but in rationalism and epistemology, with the unique viewpoint that before one devises a specific code of ethics or belief system, one must first approach the world from a chiefly scientific standpoint, un-tempered by biases or such subjective products as morality or faith. To an Assassin, knowledge should be obtained first and foremost through strict objective reasoning, but this method is disrupted by each individual's fundamental dependency on his or her own senses to acquire information. These senses can be deceived in some measure, or otherwise will never convey the precise intrinsic quality of an object. Consequently, they are rendered unreliable, with the end result being that "true" or "full" objectivity is, as Altaïr argued, unreachable. The driving theory behind the Assassin's creed is thus that "one can only know that one knows nothing," a handicap corroborated by the Isu Juno, who cited this as a defect of humans.
From this skepticism arises the Assassins' maxim that "nothing is true, everything is permitted," a relativistic assertion designed to provide an answer to the vastly disparate convictions over the perfect solution for humanity's ills: that there is no Truth and any attempted application of a singular ideal on a universal scale is first and foremost unrealistic. Moderation is therefore an inherent principle of the Assassins, who shun extremism as destructive to society. To treat one belief as absolute is to not only submit oneself to the irrationality of blind faith, but also to cloud oneself from the perspectives of inevitable dissenters. These perspectives must always be taken into account, not only in one's outlook of society and life, but also in aspects of one's work, which manifests in the Assassins' emphasis on precision and stealth, and has been referred to by Assassins such as Altaïr and Pierre Bellec as "variables."
The second component of the creed, "everything is permitted" is an extension of this principle of uncertainty. Because the quantity of variables is infinite, it follows that theoretically, anything within nature is possible, for as long as there is no absolute answer to any query, no impossibility can be ascertained, and therefore, one must remain vigilantly open-minded to the unexpected and unknown, drawing to a conclusion while being ever mindful of that conclusion's plausibility of error. Beyond being a further vessel for pluralism, Assassins are taught to be watchful of pretensions and their own capability to achieve either great dreams or great destruction. In essence, this corollary commands one to take responsibility for one's actions towards oneself and society at large.
Though the maxim as a whole is actually descriptive, not normative, it nevertheless serves as the threshold into Assassin ethos, wherein reason, not divinity or society, is the source for guidance; dogmatism is discouraged for its potential to brew prejudice and violence, and diversity of thought is respected as the closest conduit to reaching truth.
According to Haytham Kenway, the Templar Order was "born of a realization" that humanity is fundamentally corrupt, necessitating strenuous control for it to be guided to peace. From the Assassin perspective, their brotherhood was born of the "realization" that to be wise, one must first liberate one's mind from the assumption of having acquired true knowledge.
- "Twenty-two years ago, I stood where I stand now – and watched my loved ones die, betrayed by those I had called friends. Vengeance clouded my mind. It would have consumed me, were it not for the wisdom of a few strangers, who taught me to look past my instincts. They never preached answers, but guided me to learn from myself. We don't need anyone to tell us what to do; not Savonarola, not the Medici. We are free to follow our own path. There are those who will take that freedom from us, and too many of you gladly give it. But it is our ability to choose – whatever you think is true – that makes us human... There is no book or teacher to give you the answers, to show you the path. Choose your own way! Do not follow me, or anyone else"
- ―Ezio Auditore da Firenze[src]
Though the Assassins' philosophy begins with a purely empirical assessment of life that seemingly verges on nihilism, their order is profoundly idealistic, with a deep sentiment for principles of social justice, humanitarianism, egalitarianism, and libertarianism.
It is aforementioned that the Assassins' justify perspectivism with the view that it is logical and realistic, but it is further reinforced ethically by their ardent belief in the "sanctity of life" and each individual's humanity. This, in conjunction with moral relativism, are the guiding motives behind their support for cultural diversity and free will. Assassins perceive societal norms and conventions as artificial structures that can hinder one's partiality and lead to prejudices. These false boundaries include but are not limited to national borders, gender, ethnicity, social class, and race. As a result, Assassins oppose discrimination of virtually every kind, with physical abuse and slavery being especially abhorrent. 
Goals & Motivations
- "Man seeks dominion over all that he encounters. I suppose it is a natural tendency for us to aspire towards mastery of our surroundings. But this should not include other human beings. Every day more and more are pressed into service – by deception or by force. Others, though not so firmly imprisoned, are made to feel as if their lives are worthless. I have seen the ways in which men persecute women. Heard the cruel words hurled at those who come here from other lands. Watched as those who believe or act differently are made to suffer...
We discuss such things often – watching as we do from the spires of Masyaf. What can be done to stop this? To encourage tolerance and equality? Some days we speak of education, believing that knowledge will free us from immorality. But as I walk the streets and see slaves sent off to auction – my heart grows cold. When I see the husband hurl abuses and stones at his wife, insisting she exists only to serve him – my fists clench. And when I see children torn from their parents so that another man might profit – sent off to suffer beneath the desert sun and die...
...On these days, I do not think that dialogue will make a difference. On these days, I can think only of how the perpetrators need to die"
- ―Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad[src]
In light of their antipathy for authoritarianism, the Assassins throughout history have fought under the banner of liberation for oppressed peoples. In spite of this, freedom was not at the heart of their ambitions, but peace. The Assassins aspire for the establishment of global prosperity and harmony, the genesis of what essentially amounts to a utopia. In this, they share with the Templars a sincere desire to resolve the chaos that plagues humanity. Their incompatible visions of the means by which such a utopia could be achieved dismantled this common spirit. Unlike the Templars, who condemn humanity as irredeemably weak-minded and corrupt, the Assassins uphold faith, even love, in humanity as one of their core ideals. Their fundamentally skeptic creed neither justifies the defeatist attitude that is the hallmark of Templar ideology, nor endorses the notion that a single group can be wise enough to impress a correct way of life or belief on the people at large. Consequently, they scorn the notion that a short-cut to universal peace, especially in the form of global enslavement or elitist control, could be a suitable solution to society's ills. Instead, they argue that humanity must be permitted to undergo the slow and arduous journey of developing tolerance for their myriad differences, a process derided as unrealistic and impossible by the Templars.
In the Assassin view, peace is a product of education, not force, and this is only possible without the stringent control over information and society that authoritarians advocate. For this reason, and due to Altaïr's reformation of the Order and focus on free will, the Assassins have identified with the ideals of liberty over the centuries, to the extent that by the American Revolution, many Templars, notably Grand Master Haytham Kenway, believed that the Assassins had abandoned their goal of peace in favor of freedom as an end, even accusing them of anarchism, although the Assassins support democracy, not the abolition of order and government.
Ironically, in spite of the Assassins' optimistic view of humanity as a whole, they do not always retain the same faith for adversaries of human rights. This is the guiding force behind their operations, of which assassinations take primacy. Altaïr could not help but doubt the efficacy of persuasion, lamenting that many abusers were far too cemented in their ways to be redeemed through dialogue. Echoing Altaïr's sentiment, Rebecca Crane once explained to Desmond Miles that sometimes, "there's no other way." To protect the lives of innocents, the Assassins believed that realistically, an ideal, noble resolution was not always possible (i.e. one may have to kill a perpetrator to save an innocent). For many members, compassion has been a key motivation that has paradoxically translated into objectives very often revolving around murder. Perhaps most critically, social justice is a unifying theme among Assassins, and in this capacity, they serve as a reactionary force against perceived oppression, tyranny, and abuses against humanity, becoming the mortal enemies of the Templars.
Paradoxes & Misconceptions
- "What follows are the three great ironies of the Assassin Order: (1) Here we seek to promote peace, but murder is our means. (2) Here we seek to open the minds of men, but require obedience to a master and set of rules. (3) Here we seek to reveal the danger of blind faith, yet we are practitioners ourselves"
- ―Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad[src]
To laymen and especially Templars, the creed is very often taken literally as a propagation of nihilism, anarchism, and self-gratification. The pirate Edward Kenway, before being inducted into the Assassin Order, is a prime example of this, misconstruing the creed as a suggestion to "chase every desire." The Templar James Wardrop, in his dying words to Shay Cormac, bemoaned that "if everything is permitted, nothing is safe," implying that the maxim is a call for wanton hedonism. Even the scholarly woman Sofia Sartor was apt to remark on the creed's "cynicism" upon first hearing it cited by her future husband, the Mentor Ezio Auditore.
As Altaïr reported in his codex, it was not an uncommon occurrence that people newly exposed to the creed be waylaid by immorality or driven mad by the disintegration of a sense of security. Experienced Assassins were often obliged to chide their pupils or outsiders for misinterpreting "everything is permitted" as a message to abolish all sense of moral restraint and discipline.
The Assassins' devotion to free will and their assertion of moral relativism can indeed invite questions of whether or not they and their creed are nihilistic or anarchic. Their liberal belief system, along with their support of cultural expression and life, would indicate otherwise. The creed itself, however, implies that all values are meaningless. A contradiction thus arises, which can be summarized as "why do Assassins adhere strictly to beliefs while asserting that none are true?" This can be taken even further into a charge of hypocrisy when one considers that Assassins preach freedom of beliefs and yet use violence to suppress those who reject their own beliefs (of free will), an accusation that the Templars Abu'l Nuqoud and Jubair al Hakim directed upon Altaïr with their dying words.
While Altaïr at the time noted that he had no "satisfactory answer" to these charges, even expressing fear that "none exist," Ezio Auditore and Edward Kenway both provided insight into how these paradoxes are resolved.
In addressing this paradox, Ezio explained that the creed itself is more akin to that of a scientific theory, rather than a doctrine in itself, and therefore it is neither meant to be followed nor obeyed, but merely understood. Edward Kenway, upon his induction into the Assassin Order, posed the same questions to the Mentor Ah Tabai. When Ah Tabai redirected them back to him, the former pirate answered that "it might be that this idea is only the beginning of wisdom, and not its final form." In other words, the creed would be a call to nihilism—and implicitly the Assassins hypocritical for not adhering wholly to it—if it were a dogma itself. It is not, however, the dogma of the Assassins, for it can be said to be the scientific introduction to a belief system, one that only formulates the framework of an ideology, but not the completed complex of ideals itself. As such, while "nothing is true," and all beliefs and moral values can not be validated from an objective standpoint, it does not follow that morals and beliefs should be perceived as false from an ethical standpoint. While "everything is permitted" from a naturalistic perspective, it does not follow that everything must necessarily be ethically permissible. Thus, the creed is descriptive, not normative; it does not reject the notion that there is an absolute truth, nor assert that it does exist. The Assassins regard the creed as an exposition to their concept of wisdom, in that they believe that one must first understand the subjective origins of all beliefs and values before devising his or her own ideology, so as to remain open-minded and unprejudiced, but the relativity of beliefs does not make beliefs insignificant.
While explaining why the creed is not meant to support nihilism or anarchism, it does not resolve the paradox that Assassins murder in the name of peace or kill those that disagree with their own ideals in the name of free will. Altaïr, in attempting to provide an answer, suggested that the creed incorporates an even deeper meaning: that paradoxes exist and are not impossible, or rather that it is because paradoxes exist and cannot be avoided, that "nothing is true.
- "Cultures and religions and languages keep folks divided. But there's something in the Assassin's Creed that crosses all boundaries. A fondness for life and liberty."
- ―Mary Read, on the Assassin's Creed and society.[src]
Precision and Stealth
Throughout the long centuries of war between the Assassins and Templars, members of both factions often mused on the similarity of their goals and the contrast between their means. Even so, it was a frequent contention of Templars that the Assassins' methods were identical to their own in principle: "a minor evil, for a greater good." Indeed, the Assassins extensively hunted and murdered key individuals they perceived to be corrupt or a danger to humanity, and this became one of their defining attributes. A critical distinction, however, lied in the strict tenet that an Assassin must refrain from harming an innocent. As Altaïr reflected, the Templars were brutal and lacked precision in their methods: burning books wholesale, committing grand massacres, and in later histories, instigating nation-wide purges.
Accordingly, precision was a guiding principle behind the Assassins' technique and a factor behind their focus on stealth and discretion. By reducing collateral damage and the chance of open conflict, casualties would be minimized. Such a tactic aligned with their traditional respect for humanity and life, and in theory (though not always in practice), assassinations were to be carried out only in cases of utmost necessity. Once a target had been killed, agents were dissuaded from rejoicing in the death, and some even adopted the practice of paying last respects, no matter how vile they held them to be.
Although not every Assassin operated on the level of perfectionism exhibited by Francesco Vecellio,  prodigious information was expected to be gathered before an assassination is attempted. Failure to do so could yield catastrophic errors, such as Arno Dorian's mistaken murder of the Templar ally Chrétien Lafrenière. For their investigations, Assassins referred to a variety of means including but not limited to: espionage, theft of documents, and mingling with locals.
In some ways, the reforms of Altaïr promoted a greater level of stealth than under the tenure of his predecessor, Rashid ad-din Sinan. Previously, it was common practice for the Levantine Assassins to perform high-risk, near suicidal, yet awe-inspiring assassinations in crowded, public areas. This tactic relied on shock to impress power—through fear—in the public imagination. Under Altaïr's direction, the Assassins retreated further into the shadows, and this approach was generally discouraged, if not outright abolished, and restrictions on formerly banned methods such as poison were lifted. While some members were impatient with the secrecy demanded by the brotherhood, feeling that it hampered progress and influence, Altaïr feared the great risks of exposure to public society. Ever mindful that Assassins could be branded as madmen and destroyed if they remained an open target, as evident in the Fall of Masyaf to the Mongol Empire, Altaïr withdrew the brotherhood further into secrecy. Thus, security was another reason for the Assassins' policy of stealth.
Despite this, it was not unknown for Assassins even after the High Middle Ages to resort to open conflict, and these uncommon tactics could range from the instigation of riots, employment of mercenaries, or even a direct militaristic assault on enemy bases.
In Altaïr's time, the Assassins were markedly apprehensive that public promotion of their ideals could yield societal reforms. As a result, at first much of their activities revolved only around the elimination or sabotage of those they believed threatened the rights of humanity. With their dream that humanity arrive at utopia through free will, their way of guidance was often indirect, with an emphasis on individuals learning through self-experience. For instance, their way of teaching Ezio against the path of vengeance involved allowing him to experience that journey personally.
Over time, the brotherhood's policies evolved and during the Italian Renaissance, the Assassins under the leadership of Ezio Auditore became more active at winning the hearts of the public. It was Ezio's conviction that the strength of the Assassins derived from the strength of the common people, a sentiment initially rebuffed by the cynical Mentor Niccolò Machiavelli. Accordingly, the Assassins' campaign in Rome was prolific in rehabilitating a city crumbling under the weight of Borgia corruption, such as funding renovations, sponsoring merchants, and rescuing civilians.
The order continued to adapt and reform gradually through the centuries, and by the 20th century, their activities began to shift over to non-violent social reforms rather than aggressive enforcement. The transition was tenuous: certain branches, such as the fledgling branch established in North America by Achilles Davenport and the Assassin-sponsored movement Narodnaya Volya engaged in operations smacking of terrorism. It was only after World War II that the Assassins definitively refocused their activities towards inspiring change through example. Assassinations became far rarer, and until the Great Purge of 2000, the shadow war with the Templars defused to one waged through covert tampering of political elections instead.
Initiation into the Order
- Main article: Initiation into the Assassin Order
There were two ways of entering into the Order: through birth, like Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad, Ezio Auditore and Desmond Miles, or through recruitment, like Assassin apprentices, Edward Kenway and Shaun Hastings.
After declaring oneself an Assassin under the Creed, a trainee would be tested to prove their worth over an unspecified period of time. For example, Ezio was tasked with hunting down Templar conspirators over years before he was officially inducted, whereas Assassin apprentices had to gain enough experience in their contract missions across the world before joining the Assassins Guild as fully-fledged members.
The Assassins spent their entire lives training to kill. From an early age, they were taught to observe their surroundings and plan ahead. Combat skills were essential and focused on bladed weaponry. However, the most important consideration in the Assassins' training was concealment. Stealth was the greatest weapon of the Assassins, and everything about their lives emphasized a devotion to it. It was essential for an Assassin to be able to reach their target unnoticed and then slip back into the crowd after they had struck.
Another significant focus of an Assassin's training was maneuverability. By the time an Assassin reached the rank of Master Assassin, they were also a master of freerunning, an early form of parkour extensively utilized by the Assassins. Widely seen as alien by the general populace, this method of movement allowed the Assassins to reach areas not otherwise accessible. Freerunning gave the Assassins a significant advantage over nearly all of their enemies and city guards, and could be used to traverse crowded urban environments quickly and efficiently.
However, not all Assassins were trained from birth, particularly those recruited later in life. Trainees had to learn the ways of their craft through personal experience and the teachings from other Assassins in the field. For example, Ezio learned many techniques from other Assassins and allies like Paola, his uncle Mario Auditore and the thief Rosa, as well as several fundamental assassination techniques through reading Altaïr's Codex. Centuries later, Edward Kenway used skills learned through piracy to better himself as an Assassin.
Unlike certain other factions, the Assassins did not have a specific style of fighting. Aside from their signature Hidden Blade, each branch used weapons and fighting styles native to the area. For example, the Turkish Assassins favored curved daggers, while the Chinese Assassins were trained in wushu.
Throughout the ages, the Brotherhood has had many weapons at its disposal. During ancient times, the Assassins did not have any standard attire or equipment, but ancient Assassins were known for using spears, poisons, bows, and other armaments. By the time of the High Middle Ages, they had assumed white as their general color and robes with beaked hoods as their common clothing.
This age also marked the appearance of the Assassins' signature weapon, the Hidden Blade, a retractable blade first conceptualized by Darius. Other weapons used by the Assassins included swords, short blades and throwing knives, though the Order forbade the use of poison as "a coward's tool". Many such rules changed under the leadership of Altaïr, who pioneered several inventions and techniques with the assistance of an Apple of Eden. These included the Poison Blade, the Hidden Gun, and new types of assassinations which dramatically altered the practices of the Order.
From the Renaissance onward, the Assassins' equipment did not change significantly, but some weapons were added to their arsenal. The use of armor over robes had become popular, although the white robes with beaked hoods persisted. Ezio Auditore and other Italian Assassins used a Hidden Gun, crossbow, poison darts, smoke bombs, and a secondary Hidden Blade, among more conventional weapons like swords and knives. Some regions also had unique weapons not seen elsewhere, like the tomahawk of Ratonhnhaké:ton or Hookblades used in the early 16th century Ottoman Empire. Still others, such as the Caribbean Assassins, did not have beaked hoods as part of their standard attire.
Under the Mentorship of the Sikh Jayadeep Mir, the British Brotherhood adopted the fear tactics developed by the Indian Brotherhood, began utilizing fear tactics through the employment of hallucinogens and fear bombs. By scaring enemies from battle, the Indian and British Assassins could avoid being forced to kill them, thereby mitigating casualties.
In modern times, Assassins followed the rest of society into the new era. As technology progressed, guns became commonplace and computers became prevalent, with Assassins like Rebecca Crane and Hannah Mueller specializing in their use. While Desmond Miles was being held by Abstergo Industries within their Roman facility, a small group of Assassins attempted to rescue him, armed with automatic weapons.
Historically, Assassins always showed great respect for the dead. Their own were buried in crypts or large tombs, wrapped in a cloth shroud with their red sash spread across the body. The greatest Assassins were venerated in large tombs and entombed within sarcophagi, their likeness emblazoned on the lid and their symbol venerated in the flags of the tomb.
For all assassination targets, unless circumstances prevented, Assassins would give them their last rites after they had passed away. Early in his career as an Assassin, Ezio Auditore was reprimanded by his uncle Mario for disrespecting the corpse of his target and longtime rival Vieri de' Pazzi, instilling in him a respect for the dead.
When an Assassin had behaved irrationally on several occasions, the Assassin Council could call for a vote of expulsion. The expulsion would include that the Assassin was stripped of their rank and exiled from the Brotherhood.
The Assassin Arno Dorian was expelled from the Order, after he had defied the Council's orders, performed several assassinations without the Council's consent and in their words "flouted the Creed at every step".
In cases of extreme disregard for the Creed's tenets, an expelled member may further become the target of assassination by their former comrades, such examples being Perotto Calderon for the theft of the Shroud of Eden, and Shay Cormac for the theft of the Voynich manuscript.
The bloodline of the original Assassins was formed millennia ago, after members of the First Civilization conceived children with humans. These children had the appearance of humans, but were gifted with some of the inhuman abilities from the precursor race, mainly Eagle Vision. However, throughout the years, these senses were spread thin into the genetic pool, and became dormant in many humans. Only those with high concentrations of First Civilization genetics could freely use the power in the modern era, or those who gained the ability through the Bleeding Effect.
Regardless of ability, many of the resulting humans eventually banded together to accomplish the same goals shared with their modern-day descendants: the protection of the free will for all people, and the removal of individuals who would threaten the freedom of others.
Early Ancient era
In 465 BCE, Xerxes I was killed by the Persian Assassin Darius with a Hidden Blade, because the Achaemenid dynasty was being supported by the Templars. A century later, the Templar-affiliated conqueror known as Alexander the Great was poisoned by the Assassin Iltani in order to attain a Stave of Eden.
During the later days of the Roman Republic, the Assassin Order (known as Liberalis Circulum) was secretly enemy of the Roman Senate, the Templar-influenced ruling body of the Republic. Little is known of the Assassin Order's hierarchy and activities during this time, barring a few major assassinations. In 44 BCE, forty Assassins, who had previously been part of the Roman Senate, plotted the assassination of the Roman dictator, Gaius Julius Caesar. Marcus Junius Brutus was tasked with plotting the assassination by Gaius Cassius Longinus, after seeing visions granted by the First Civilization in the Colosseum Vault. Twenty-three of the forty Assassins stabbed Caesar to death at the Roman Senate. Following this event, the Assassins went their separate ways, but most were eventually tracked down and killed by Caesar's allies. Brutus himself committed suicide before the Battle of Philippi, which his forces eventually lost. Afterward, his Brothers unsuccessfully tried to revive him with the Shroud of Eden.
In 30 BCE, Cleopatra, Caesar's former lover and Queen of Egypt, was killed by the Egyptian Assassin Amunet with a venomous snake. Years later, on 24 January 41 CE, Roman Emperor Caligula was stabbed to death by the Assassin Leonius under unknown circumstances.
In 259 CE, the Assassins Accipiter and Aquilus safeguarded an Ankh for the Assassin Order. Aquilus' father, Lucius, initially held the Ankh, but when he was killed by Templars, Aquilus fought to retrieve it. He uncovered a Templar traitor, Faustinus, who pointed to Roman senator Caïus Fulvus Vultur as the ringleader before Aquilus eliminated him. Though he was able to kill and retrieve the Ankh from Vultur, Aquilus died a captive of the Prefect of Lugdunum. Accipiter, Aquilus' cousin, managed to save Aquilus' wife, Valeria, and she told him of the work that they were doing. Together, the two recovered the Ankh, and Valeria interred it in a shrine to Aquilus' memory.
High Middle Ages
As Christian European lords tried to retake the Holy Land from its Muslim rulers during the Crusades, control of the Assassins fell to Hassan-i Sabbāh, who changed the Order into a public organization that openly operated from the impregnable fortresses of Alamut and Masyaf. Under his command, public assassinations occurred much more often and the people were encouraged to stand up to their oppressors, realizing that they were not on their own.
At the same time, however, the Templars became a public knightly order under the name of "Knights Templar". As their sole stated purpose was to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land, they were a significant military presence in the Levant and often clashed with local Assassins.
During the 1170s, the Assassins were at odds with the Saracens; in 1174, thirteen Assassins were sent to the Sultan Saladin's camp close to Damascus to assassinate him. They successfully infiltrated his tent, but were detected once inside. One Assassin was killed by a Saracen general and the others were executed upon trying to escape.
In 1176, Saladin led a siege on the Assassins' fortress at Masyaf. After the location of Saladin's tent was revealed by the Assassin spy Ahmad Sofian, Umar Ibn-La'Ahad was sent to leave a feather and a dagger with a threatening message at Saladin's bedside. Despite a careful approach, he was ultimately detected and killed a Saracen noble to make his escape. Ahmad Sofian confirmed Umar's identity under torture, and Umar gave himself up to execution to spare Ahmad's life.
In 1189, the Assassins were betrayed by a man named Haras, who captured Mentor Al Mualim and three other Assassins, and allowed Crusaders into Masyaf's village. Under the leadership of young Assassin Altaïr, members of the Brotherhood were able to force the Crusaders back. Altaïr personally assassinated Haras and saved Al Mualim, earning the rank of Master Assassin.
The next year, the Assassins began to hunt for the Chalice, an object rumored to be so powerful that it could end the Crusades. Al Mualim wanted to keep it out of Templar hands, and sent Altaïr to recover it. Investigating the Chalice's location, he eventually tracked it to the Temple of Sand, but found the Templar leader Basilisk had removed it. As the structure began to crumble, Basilisk revealed that the Chalice was not an object, but a woman, then left Altaïr to die. However, Altaïr escaped and hunted Basilisk, uncovering the Templar plan to poison the water supply of Acre.
After foiling this plot, Altaïr followed the trail of the Chalice to Jerusalem and recognized her to be Adha, a former acquaintance of his. On Adha's instruction, Altaïr killed Harash, a traitor to the Assassin Order. Altaïr then planned to run away with Adha, but she was soon captured by Basilisk and transported to an unknown location. Years later, Altaïr found her dead, and began hunting the individuals responsible for her murder.
In 1191, the Assassins were still in a secret battle with the Templars and their leader, Robert de Sable. It was during the Third Crusade that the Assassins learned of the Templars' interest in an ancient artifact hidden within the catacombs of Solomon's Temple. A mission to retrieve the artifact was organized, and though it was successful, it led to the death of one Assassin, the disfigurement of another, and the arrival of the Templar army at the gates of Masyaf. The Assassins were nearly overwhelmed by the following battle, but were ultimately able to drive the Templars from the fortress and village.
Following the assault, the Assassin blamed for prompting the assault – Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad – was reduced to the rank of novice and tasked with eliminating nine corrupt leaders who all answered to Robert de Sable. As Altaïr made his way through the list of both Crusaders and Saracen, he was unsettled by the realization that their goal to bring peace to the Holy Land was just, and that they were "misguided perhaps, but pure in motive."
This was a view shared by Al Mualim, who agreed with their goals, but felt that their attitude of "the end justifies the means" undermined the good they did. As his mission progressed, Altaïr sought to know what tied his victims together, and the discovery that they were all Templars reinforced his determination to bring an end to their plot.
By fall of 1191, Robert de Sable and his associates had been eliminated. However, it was soon discovered that Al Mualim was secretly a former member of de Sable's coalition and wished to use the Apple of Eden to force his rule upon the world. He was killed during a confrontation with Altaïr, who subsequently took on the position of Mentor of the Levantine Order. With full control over the Assassins, Altaïr set out to liberate the island of Cyprus from the Templars, who had recently purchased it from King Richard I. After assassinating the Templar Grand Master Armand Bouchart and discovering the Templar Archive, Altaïr returned to Masyaf with Maria Thorpe, de Sable's former disciple and Templar deserter.
During this time, Altaïr began to write a detailed Codex based on information gleaned from the Apple of Eden. These secrets profoundly affected the Order, as new assassination techniques and equipment changed the way the organization operated. In 1209, Altaïr began to send his Assassins to cities throughout the world, after he was made aware of their existence by the Apple of Eden.
In the year 1217, Altaïr set out with his wife Maria and son Darim to kill Genghis Khan, leaving Malik Al-Sayf as the Order's temporary leader. Khan's army had advanced westward rapidly, and Altaïr suspected that he possessed a Piece of Eden. On their journey, the family met with Mongolian Assassin Qulan Gal, and the group worked together to end the threat. Ultimately, Darim and Qulan succeeded in killing the Khan in 1227.
On their return to Masyaf, Altaïr found that his rival Abbas Sofian had taken over the Order, imprisoning Malik and killing Altaïr and Maria's youngest son, Sef. Shortly after Altaïr's arrival, Malik was killed as well. Abbas then attempted to take the Apple from Altaïr, leading to Maria's death at the hands of Swami, Abbas' lackey.
Altaïr and Darim fled Masyaf and Altaïr fell into a deep depression, obsessing over the Apple and ultimately driving Darim and Sef's family away. Continued study of the Apple led him to Memory Seals, and taught him how to make several advanced gadgets. Recovering his mental fortitude, Altaïr returned to Masyaf in 1247 and found it in disrepair. He rallied Assassins loyal to him and Malik, and turned several of Abbas' henchmen to his side. Together they took the fortress, and Altaïr executed Abbas with the Hidden Gun, reclaiming the title of Mentor.
During this time, the Mongol threat continued advancing west, and Altaïr ordered his Assassins to abandon Masyaf and carry on their activities in secret. He trained and initiated the travelers Niccolò and Maffeo Polo into the Order in 1257, then tasked them with creating Assassin guilds throughout the Old World. He then gave them his Codex and the Memory Seals for safekeeping in Constantinople before locking himself in the empty Masyaf library.
Late Middle Ages
- "In this modern age, we are not as literal as our ancestors; but our seal is no less permanent..."
- ―Mario Auditore at Ezio's official induction into the Assassin Order.[src]
During the Late Middle Ages, the Order continued to thrive, despite being forced to adopt an even more secretive and isolated existence. When the Renaissance started in Italy, the Assassin Order primarily focused themselves in the country, which served also as headquarters of the Templar Order at the time.
In the early 14th century, the Assassins manipulated King Philip IV of France to try and destroy the Templars. They made the Church brand the Templars heretics, turning their own weapon against them, with the intention of finishing off the Templars. They managed to have the Templar Grand Master, Jacques de Molay burned at the stake, however, his nine most trusted men had escaped after he had passed on the knowledge of the ancients, and their Order continued to survive.
By 1321, various members of the Assassin Order had successfully integrated themselves into the everyday life of middle Italy, widely unknown to the average folk. That same year, a young sailor by the name of Domenico, the son of an Assassin, was apprenticed to the poet and Assassin Dante Alighieri, who had been tasked with transporting Altaïr's Codex from Venice to Spain.
Upon Dante's death, however, the undertaking fell instead to Domenico. During the voyage, pirates under the employ of the Templars ambushed the ship looking for the Codex, consequently raping and killing Domenico's wife. Fortunately for the Assassins, Domenico managed to break apart the Codex and hide its pages before he and his son were forced overboard.
Eventually returning to Venice, Domenico found his father and his patron, Marco Polo, an ally of the Assassins, dead. Thus, Domenico emptied the bank accounts of Messer Polo, and traveled to the city of Florence under the adopted name of Auditore. He eventually constructed the Villa Auditore in the city of Monteriggioni, which became the center of the Assassin Order in Italy up to the year 1500.
Despite the order "modernizing" since the 12th century, they still retained many of the rituals and practices, albeit altered. The practice of removing one's ring finger had been ceased, although the seal of the Order was branded upon the finger instead with a heated iron. Although significantly fewer in number, the Assassins were supported by the courtesans, thieves and mercenaries of Florence and Venice; the guilds of which were each run by a member of the Order.
During this time period, the Assassins entered another span of increased hostility with the Templars, who were attempting to overthrow the ruling House of Medici in Florence, and the Doge of Venice. Having already killed the Duke of Milan in 1476, Rodrigo Borgia, the Grand Master of the Templar Order, brought the noble families of Pazzi and Barbarigo together to accomplish his goals.
Entering into conflict with the Assassins, Borgia dealt a crippling blow to the Order in 1476, when he had the experienced Assassin Giovanni Auditore da Firenze and two of his sons, Fredrico and Petruccio, executed. The third son, Ezio, managed to escape and sought aid from his uncle. With the aid of Ezio, the Assassins were able to counter Borgia's plot over a twenty-three year campaign, defeating him at every turn.
In 1487, the Order of Assassins learned that the Templars had retrieved another Apple of Eden from the island of Cyprus, and deemed its capture necessary. Following the artifact from L'Arsenale di Venezia, Ezio managed to overpower and replace the Templar guard carrying the artifact. Under this guise, Ezio met with Borgia himself, and the two engaged in battle.
Borgia fled upon the arrival of other Assassins, and in doing so, the artifact fell into the hands of their Order. The Assassins of this age, however, were unaware of the nature of the artifact, although they did recognize it as one of the Pieces of Eden mentioned within Altaïr's Codex.
By 1500, right after Cesare Borgia besieged the city of Monteriggioni, murdering Mario Auditore and once again claiming the Apple for the Templars, Ezio Auditore had moved to Rome, meeting up with Niccolò Machiavelli and laying the foundations of a new "brotherhood" of Assassins. Utilizing the mercenaries, thieves and courtesans of Bartolomeo d'Alviano, La Volpe and Claudia Auditore da Firenze respectively, Ezio's brotherhood worked to combat the influence and power of the Borgia family, and by extension, the Papacy itself.
Headquartered in an underground storeroom owned by Fabio Orsini, on Tiber Island in the center of Rome, the Assassins began to spread their influence throughout the city, recruiting Rome's own citizens as Assassin apprentices under Ezio, eventually becoming inducted and branded into the Order as Assassins themselves. Under the instruction of Ezio, many Assassin recruits undertook a variety of missions across Europe and Asia in cities such as London, Paris, Barcelona, Lisbon, Moscow and Calicut.
There, the recruits killed and sabotaged Templars, the Templars' allies, and corrupt men in power, as well as defending and aiding their Assassin brothers and sisters, along with any willing to stand against the Borgia and the Church.
Over a period of three years, Ezio's brotherhood whittled away the Borgia family's power, and with the murder of Rodrigo Borgia at the hands of his own son, and the arrest of Cesare by the Papal Guard of Pope Julius II, the Templars' influence over the city of Rome - and indeed over all of Italy - was shattered.
Three years after Siege of Viana in 1507, when Ezio ended the threat of Cesare Borgia for once and all, the Assassin Mentor traveled to the ancient fortress of Masyaf, on a pilgrimage to learn about the origins of the Order. When he arrived, he discovered that the fortress had been overrun by the Templars, who were searching for the five keys, which would unlock a secret library beneath the fortress of Masyaf.
With one seal already in the Templars' possession, Ezio learned that the remaining four were hidden throughout the city of Constantinople. From there, Ezio made his way to the city in the hopes of obtaining the remaining seals.
When he arrived in Constantinople, Ezio was welcomed by the guild there, led by Yusuf Tazim, and learned how to use their unique weapons. With the knowledge made known to him that the Templars had taken over the Byzantine remnants, and in the recent years, had been attempting to overthrow the Ottomans, Ezio began to take a leading role in the conflict.
He retook all the Assassin Dens around the city and trained seven recruits to the rank of Master Assassin, assigning each to one of the dens. The Constantinople guild of Assassins also worked to help liberate and spread their Order's influence in other cities, namely Bursa, Rhodes, Marseille, Damascus, Jerusalem, Madrid, Lisbon, Tunis, Tripoli, Athens, Algiers and Alexandria, where they slowly whittled away Templar control, rebuilt the cities and protected them from attacks by the Templars.
They also rescued captured Assassins in these cities, and helped those who opposed the Templars. During these ventures, the Assassins were responsible for destroying the compound of the Knights Hospitalier.
Together with Yusuf, Ezio protected the Ottoman prince Suleiman I from the Templars, while continuing his search for the keys. Befriending a Venetian lady, Sofia Sartor, she deciphered a map containing the location of the keys. After finding four of the keys to Altaïr's library, Ezio traveled to Cappadocia – after asking Yusuf to protect Sofia at her shop – to hunt down Manuel Palaiologos and find the final key. On doing so, he discovered that Manuel was not the true leader of the Byzantines, but that Suleiman's uncle – Ahmet – was.
On his return to Constantinople, Ezio made his way to Sofia's shop, only to find that Yusuf had been killed and Ahmet had captured Sofia, demanding the keys in exchange. However, after a full scale assault on the city's Arsenal, Ezio chased him over the countryside, culminating with Ahmet's brother, Selim I, killing Ahmet by throwing the man from a cliff.
From there, Ezio and Sofia traveled to Masyaf and unlocked the library of Altaïr, where Ezio attempted to communicate with Desmond. Deciding that his mission was over, Ezio left behind his sword and Hidden Blade, resigning his life as an Assassin.
Once he had returned to Italy, Ezio appointed the Assassin Lodovico Ariosto as the Mentor of the Italian Assassins and then retired from the Order, marrying Sofia Sartor and having two children with her, Flavia and Marcello Auditore, while settling down on a Tuscan vineyard.
As the Templars had been severely weakened in Europe, the Assassins began collecting and studying several Pieces of Eden. In 1510, Francesco Vecellio hunted down Niccolò di Pitigliano, recovering the Shroud of Eden.
By 1519, Giovanni Borgia was secured a position aboard Hernán Cortés' ship, which was sailing to the New World. After the Spanish troops began to ransack Tenochtitlan, Giovanni recovered a Crystal Skull from the Mayan city, assassinating one of their priests to obtain it. On bringing it to Paracelsus for study, the Assassins found that it was not one of the Pieces.
In 1527, Giovanni accidentally read a tome belonging to Paracelsus and succeeded in crafting the Philosopher's Stone. After discovering that the tome was one half of the Book of Abraham, he searched for the other half with Maria Amiel, Paracelsus' assistant, but only found a translation. However, he did develop a relationship with Maria, with the two of them becoming romantically involved and later marrying each other.
Around this time, the Chinese Assassins were fighting desperately against the Templars. Several Chinese Emperors came to power through Templar support, who would then orchestrate the mass killings of Assassins. One such ruler was the Yongle Emperor, who was killed by the Assassin Li Tong in 1424.
When the Jiajing Emperor came to power, he nearly destroyed the Brotherhood in China, though a handful of Assassins fled west for support. Shao Jun and her Mentor escaped to Italy, though the Jiajing Emperor's men killed Jun's Mentor along the way, leaving her to fend for herself. With no alternative, Jun went to Ezio to seek guidance and support.
Though he initially wanted nothing to do with the Assassins anymore, he eventually relented and taught her how to rebuild her Brotherhood. Shao Jun, armed with this knowledge and a box that Ezio told her to open only if she lost her way, traveled back to China with the vow to rebuild the Chinese Brotherhood, no matter how long it took.
Golden Age of Piracy
The Caribbean Assassins learned that the Caribbean Templars holding Bartholomew Roberts, a Sage who could led them to the Observatory. The Mentor Ah Tabai sent his Assassins to get him, but failed. The pirate Edward Kenway, who had killed the Assassin traitor Duncan Walpole, helped the Assassins against the attack of the British on the Tulum. Edward later joined the Assassins and prevent from the Templars to use the Observatory. He offered his hideout on Great Inagua to the Brotherhood. Ah Tabai accepted and eventually moved the Order to the new location.
As the reach of the Old World spread to the New, the Assassins followed to ensure they were able to protect it from any advances the Templars made. In 1503, the Italian Assassins under Ezio were sent to recover a map of the New World made by Piri Reis. Using this map, they too began to send their forces to America. The first Assassin to ever reach the New World was John de la Tour, who set up a base for the Brotherhood there.
In 1510, the Assassins in Florida recruited Alonso Carlo and his adopted son, Miguel Ramón Carlo de Lugo, to their cause. In 1521, Carlo was tasked with stopping the explorer Juan Ponce de León from reaching the Fountain of Youth, where they knew he would find a Piece of Eden. While Miguel distracted León in conversation, a poisoned arrow killed the explorer, following which Miguel escaped.
In the mid-1730s, Achilles Davenport was recruited to the Colonial branch of the Assassin Order and became its Mentor in 1746. The Templars, headed by Haytham Kenway, nearly decimated this branch of Assassins in 1763, wiping out most of its members and nearly all of its records. The exact nature of the attack was caused by former Assassin Shay Cormac who betrayed the Brotherhood after a failed attempt at locating a Temple using the Voynich manuscript and a Precursor box. Shay eventually realized the Assassins wouldn't stop trying to find these Temples and killed Assassin members Liam O'Brien, Hope Jensen, Louis-Joseph and Kesegowaase. After Liam's death, Haytham attempted to kill Achilles who was spared by Shay's convincing though forever wounded in the leg, effectively ending his time as an Assassin and he went into retirement.
Years later, Achilles mentored the young Assassin Ratonhnhaké:ton, who ultimately destroyed the Colonial Rite of the Templar Order through his actions during the American Revolutionary War. Ratonhnhaké:ton also rebuilt the province's Brotherhood, by recruiting several citizens of New York and Boston.
Following his father's death by Shay Cormac, Arno Dorian was adopted by François de la Serre, the Grand Master of the French Templars. In 1789 François was murdered by his opponents in the Templar order, led by François-Thomas Germain. Arno joined the Assassin Order to revenge his father and his adopted father's death while also to redeem himself from his past mistakes and to uncover the intriguer of the French Revolution. He was assisted by his adopted sister, Élise de la Serre, a Templar by herself. As the Assassin Mentor Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau was poisoned by Pierre Bellec, Arno had to kill his trainer and friend. Arno eventually killed all the Templars who sided with Germain, until he killed Germain himself, the made the Revolution happen.
In 1868, the two sibling Assassins, Jacob and Evie Frye, arrived to London to free the city from the hands of the Templar and to take from them the Shroud of Eden. With the help of Henry Green, they founded the gang, the Rooks to fight against the Templar gang of the Grand Master, Crawford Starrick. Jacob and Evie killed the Templar members in London until they found out Starrick had found the Shroud and planned to kill Queen Victoria. The siblings killed Starrick and hid the Shroud.
- "In the old days, that usually meant killing anyone who became too powerful or greedy. [...] These days, it means subversion of established regimes. [...] Countries. Corporations. We change the system from within."
- ―"The Mentor", in 2000, on the Assassin Order.[src]
During the mid-19th century, at the start of the Sikh Empire, the Indian Assassin Arbaaz Mir and ancestor to Monima Das was active in the search for a powerful Piece of Eden known as the Koh-i-Noor. During this period the Indian Assassins were led by the Assassin Hamid in the capital city of the Sikh Empire, Amritsar.
By the late 19th century, the Russian sect of the Assassin Order, the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), played a vital role in overthrowing the Tsarist rule over Russia. The Assassins strongly assisted their close ally, Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks – as Lenin's brother was an Assassin himself.
Due to the efforts of the Assassin Nikolai Orelov, the Templar-affiliated Tsar Alexander III died of kidney failure and a Staff of Eden was destroyed in the Tunguska explosion. Without power, Tsarevich Nicholas II was removed from the throne and Russia became communistic.
By the 20th century, the tactics and practices of the Assassin Order had changed greatly. Whilst the Order of Assassins had kept to their policy of remote camps and isolation, the Templars had begun to infiltrate society further; taking the form of many publicly known corporations such as NASA, Kraft and BP, which all secretly linked to the shadow-corporation Abstergo Industries.
The Templars Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Adolf Hitler planned a war, World War II, which would place the Templars in control. At the end of the war, Hitler was supposed to kill his double, created by the Piece of Eden in his control, and then escape. However, the Assassins spoiled this victory by assassinating Hitler as he exited the bunker that his body double was placed in.
The Assassins relied less upon killing powerful or greedy individuals, and more on changing the "established regime" from within, using politics as well as the blade to achieve their aims, such as rigging elections to keep Templars out of office.
By the year 2000, the Hidden Blade had become a largely ceremonial weapon. In the meantime however, the Templars continued to search for and investigate the various Pieces of Eden they discovered throughout this period, whilst the Assassins continued their war against them; notably being responsible for the destruction of at least one Templar-controlled base in Siberia in 1908, known in public as the Tunguska explosion.
However, by the year 1985, the Templars, under the guise of their front-company Abstergo Industries, had begun kidnapping Assassins or those related to them in an attempt to locate even more Pieces of Eden.
That same year, a ten to eleven year old child, a descendant of the Assassin Nikolai Orelov, was kidnapped by Abstergo's Lineage Research and Acquisition department and entered into the Animus Project, later being codenamed "Daniel Cross". Years later, in 1998, Daniel joined the Assassin Order as a prospective, but with a mission to find the then-current Mentor.
Two years later, he was granted his wish and inducted into the Order by the Mentor himself; Cross subsequently murdered the Mentor with the very Hidden Blade he had been bequeathed by his victim just moments before, as a result of a neurological impulse instilled in him by Warren Vidic during his time as an Abstergo captive.
Cross' actions directly led to the fall of the Assassin Order, as he compromised virtually all of the Assassin camps around the world that he had visited in search for the Mentor upon his programmed return to Abstergo Industries, which forced the Assassins even further into hiding. Other notable Assassins held captive by Abstergo included Clay Kaczmarek and Desmond Miles – both descendants of Ezio Auditore and Adam.
After the Mentor's death, William Miles began to take a prominent role in the Order's functioning, and became their de facto leader. It was his decision of raising Lucy Stillman outside the Order after the age of seventeen, so that all her ties to the Assassins were cut and she could infiltrate Abstergo.
The Assassins attempted to spy on Abstergo using moles several times, but the people they sent always turned out to be strong and got themselves killed, or too weak and easily manipulated by the Templars.
Sometime around 2008, William also recruited Clay Kaczmarek to the Order. Tasked with infiltrating Abstergo and discovering information about them, Clay returned successfully with a memo detailing the allocation of Abstergo Industries' budget, along with their funding of the Animus Project. With this information known to the Assassins, a plan was devised for him to get caught by their Lineage Research and Acquisition department as Subject 16, and was to be rescued later by Lucy.
However, years of isolation had caused her to turn against the Assassins, and once Clay learned of her defection through hacking into Abstergo's systems and uncovering security footage, she did not help him escape when the time came, leading to his subsequent suicide.
- "We lost two more teams last night. That's eight more of us just... gone."
- ―Lucy Stillman, 2012.[src]
Later on, the Templars tracked down Desmond Miles, William's son, who had left the Order in 2003. Using Desmond, Abstergo managed to obtain a map of the locations of the Pieces of Eden across the globe, and subsequently begun their attempts to claim them. When Desmond began to suffer from the Bleeding Effect, Warren Vidic told Lucy to take him somewhere where he would feel safe, as part of a plan code-named "Project Siren".
Not long after, the Assassins were able to free Desmond with the "aid" of Lucy, as well as obtain their own copy of the map. Following this, Desmond agreed to aid the Assassins in their quest to defeat Abstergo, mostly for revenge, but also for closure.
Utilizing the Animus 2.0, a copy of the machine used by Abstergo to explore his genetic memories previously, Desmond followed the memories of Ezio Auditore, adopting his skills in combat and freerunning, while the rest of the Order concentrated to locating the Pieces of Eden before their Templar counterparts.
Despite this, however, the war with the Templars had taken a turn for the worse. With their numbers dwindling, the Order of Assassins was in danger of losing the war. At least two known teams were reported to have been killed, one in Brisbane, Australia, and another in Whistler, Canada.
As technology progressed, so did the weapons used against the Assassins. By 2012, the Templars were using cell phone towers and satellites to track them down. As a result, Desmond and his group had to take refuge within the Sanctuary, deep beneath the city of Monteriggioni. By this point, the Order was using at least one e-mail network, known as the Hephaestus Email Network, in order to facilitate communications.
In the latter half of 2012, an Assassin team made up of Lucy Stillman, Rebecca Crane, Shaun Hastings and Desmond Miles discovered the Colosseum Vault – after Desmond had relived Ezio's memories in Rome through the Animus – and infiltrated it, securing the Apple of Eden that Ezio had hidden there centuries before. On contact with First Civilization artifact, Desmond's body was taken over by the ancient being Juno, who forced him to stab and kill the Assassin-traitor, Lucy.
This indirectly helped to ensure that the Templars could not get their hands on Ezio's Apple of Eden and kept Desmond safe from Templar influence from within the Assassins. Due to this event, the team and the Apple were brought to William Miles and the Order, in turn securing one of the ancient artifacts for the Order's cause.
Also, around this time, an Assassin team in Moscow were chasing a potential lead on a Piece of Eden. However, as William Miles stated, this was some of the only good news they had got. There were teams in Osaka and São Paulo. In Osaka, the team was being tailed, so they had gone dark. In São Paulo, a leak was confirmed and the team was working on flushing it out.
The team in Denver were even worse off. They had lost contact without informing, and their safe house was empty. This meant that they were dead or captured, or that they had gone dark without notifying the Assassin headquarters.
After killing Lucy, Desmond entered a coma, and was put back into the Animus. He relived a restored memory sequence, which provided the Assassins with co-ordinates, leading to the Grand Temple. While most Assassins continued their fight with Abstergo, William's team – with help from Gavin Banks – reached New York, hoping to find the Temple and stop the end of the world.
Upon finding out that they needed a key, and three "batteries" to open the door in the Grand Temple, Desmond began to work on finding the key, by reliving memories that Juno told him to. While William's team began working on opening the Temple, he had other teams run interference, and tried to thwart Abstergo's attempts to find them, or other Pieces of Eden.
During this endeavor, several Assassins were killed by Abstergo agents, including Adriano Maestranzi. William was captured by Juhani Otso Berg when he went alone to Cairo to retrieve the third and final power source. This attempt to find Desmond and take the Apple from him ended in failure, as he assassinated both Daniel Cross and Warren Vidic, killing the men responsible for nearly destroying the order 12 years previously, and foiling the Eye-Abstergo through these actions.
Returning to the Temple, Desmond fully reactivated it and discovered the Eye, a device that would save the world from the Second Disaster. Juno urged Desmond to activate the Eye, but Minerva asked him not to, saying that the Eye's activation would also kill Desmond and release Juno from her prison.
While Minerva and her brethren tried to save the world, Juno was planning to use their technology to conquer it, so she was imprisoned. Minerva showed Desmond that if he let the Second Disaster happen, the world would be devastated, but humanity would endure. Desmond would become a legendary figure that would rebuild the world. However, upon his death, his ideals would be misinterpreted by future generations, bringing about the fall of civilization, and "what once was, shall be again".
Believing the world would have a chance at defeating Juno, Desmond told William, Shaun and Rebecca to leave and prepare for the incoming struggle. Desmond then activated the Eye and the world was indeed saved, but as he was informed, Desmond died and Juno was released from her prison.
Following Desmond's death, a depressed William went into exile, leaving the leadership of the Assassins in the hands of Gavin Banks. For the next year, Banks traveled the world onboard the Altaïr II in search of Assassin cells. Eventually, he located William in a bunker in Norway. At the same time, Rebecca uncovered the existence of the Initiates hacker collective. After discovering that their fellow crewmembers Stephanie Chiu and Eric Cooper were Initiates, William decided to return to leadership of the Brotherhood. He recruited the Initiates and assigned them a handler, a mysterious woman going by the name Bishop.
In 2014, the Assassins learnt that Abstergo had acquired the body of a Sage named John Standish, and had started the Phoenix Project to sequence a full Precursor genome. On October 13, Shaun and Galina Voronina assaulted and destroyed Abstergo's Paris laboratory. Knowing that the Templars would not stop in their plans to find the remains of more Sages, Bishop used the Initiates to sequence the memories of Arno Dorian, who was present at the death of François-Thomas Germain, a Sage from the French Revolution. The Initiate's research revealed that Germain's bones were too degraded for DNA extraction, ensuring another victory for the Assassins.
In 2015, Bishop called upon the Initiate again to synch the memories of Jacob and Evie Frye, twin Assassins from the Industrial Revolution, to find a Shroud of Eden in London before Abstergo could. However, Shaun and Rebecca chose to go off book and confront Isabelle Ardant and narrowly escaped being executed by Sigma Team. After the Initiate's data synch confirmed the Shroud's location underneath Buckingham Palace, Shaun and Rebecca, backed up by Galina, infiltrated the vault but the Templars had gotten to them first. In the ensuing skirmish, Shaun managed to kill Ardant, but Rebecca was wounded by Violet da Costa, who managed to escape with the Shroud.
William Miles later ordered all Assassins worldwide to search for Álvaro Gramática's laboratory and recover the Shroud. While the Assassins had no luck in locating the lab, Jasdip Dhami and Eric Cooper relayed their concerns to Bishop in regards to putting the Initiates in the Templars' crosshairs. After much deliberation, William enacted the Rooftop Garden Protocol, instructing all Assassins to remain professional on their network and if they did find Gramática's lab, they were not to engage until a strike team could be assembled. Additionally, Bishop was forced to temporarily sever all contact with the Initiates.
- "The seeds were planted as two worlds became one. Behold, the Assassins, the children of two worlds!"
- ―Clay Kaczmarek.[src]
The Assassins have existed since before the turn of the first millennium; several known figures included Darius, Iltani, Wei Yu, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and their co-conspirators, Amunet and Leonius. Historically however, the forebearers of the Assassins have existed since before recorded time, possibly reaching as far back as Adam and Eve.
Medieval and Renaissance periods
During the Third Crusade, the Levantine branch of the Assassin Order was mainly made up of native individuals; although some, like Altaïr, were born to parents of both religions. Led by Al Mualim, and later Altaïr himself, other members included Harash, Malik and Kadar Al-Sayf, Rauf, Abbas Sofian, Masun and Jamal.
Decades later, in the north, the Mongolian branch of Assassins were working to halt the rise of the Mongolian Empire; notable members included the legendary Assassin Qulan Gal and his protégé Nergüi.
Later on, during the Renaissance, the Order's numbers had dwindled significantly. Having become much more secretive, members of the Order often had occupations and lives outside of the Order, ranging from artists, to thieves, and even royal treasurers.
They included the Florentine banker Giovanni Auditore da Firenze; his brother Mario Auditore, caretaker of the Auditore Villa and condottieri leader; Federico Auditore da Firenze and his brother Ezio Auditore da Firenze; Paola and Teodora Contanto, the heads of the Florentine and Venetian courtesans respectively; Antonio de Magianis, the head of the Venetian Thieves Guild; La Volpe, the head of the Florentine, and later, Roman Thieves Guild; Niccolò Machiavelli, a writer and head of the Florentine mercenaries; Bartolomeo d'Alviano, condottiero of Venice and later Rome, and Perotto Calderon, undercover in the employ of the Borgia, who posed as a courier.
Others included Giovanni Borgia, the illegitimate son of Calderon and Lucrezia Borgia; Paracelcus, Swiss scientist and alchemist; Francesco Vecellio, Renaissance painter; Tessa Varzi and Cipriano Enu; Rinaldo Vitturi, the keeper of the Shroud; Ridolfo Fioravant and Pietro Antonio Solari, spies working undercover as architects on the Kremlin; Luis de Santángel and Raphael Sánchez, finance minister to Ferdinand II and treasurer of Queen Isabella I respectively; Yusuf Tazim, the leader of the Constantinople Assassin Guild; Piri Reis, a top navigator and cartographer to Bayezid II; and Dogan and Azize, two lieutenants of the Constantinople Assassin Guild.
Once again, the Order had many allies amongst the common folk of Italy, as well as amongst the nobility. Foremost among them was Leonardo da Vinci, Ezio's closest friend and a genius of invention. Others included Caterina Sforza, the Countess of Forlì; Lorenzo de' Medici, the ruler of Florence; Agostino Barbarigo, the Doge of Venice from 1486; and the famed explorer Christopher Columbus.
By 1501, Ezio Auditore and Niccolò Machiavelli had begun training new Assassin recruits in the Order from their Tiber Island headquarters in Rome. In 1503, Claudia Auditore da Firenze, sister of Ezio, also joined the Order.
Age of Empires
During the Colonial period, the Assassins spread their influence to the New World. Around this time, the Caribbean Assassins were led by Ah Tabai, a Mayan-born member of the Order. To secure the Assassin interests, he recruited Mary Read into the Brotherhood, as well as stationed numerous bureau leaders across the Caribbean, including Opía Apito, Rhona Dinsmore, Antó and Upton Travers. By the 1730, Edward Kenway and Adéwalé had joined the Order, albeit only after significant personal journeys. Adéwalé displayed an interest in the Creed early on, and became a student of Ah Tabai, while Edward joined the Order to make amends on the past misdeeds he had committed in his life.
John de la Tour was the first Assassin to reach the American Colonies. In the following decades, the Colonial Assassins had grown in number significantly, led by Achilles Davenport as their Mentor. Other members of the Colonial Brotherhood included Liam O'Brien, Hope Jensen, Kesegowaase, Shay Cormac and Louis-Joseph Gaultier. Following Shay's defection to the Templars, and an assault in 1763, the Colonial branch of the Order was almost completely wiped out.
It would take another decade for the Assassins to rebuild their ranks, when they were joined by a number of new members, including Ratonhnhaké:ton, the grandson of Edward Kenway, who managed to ultimately eliminate the Colonial Rite of the Templars in 1782. During that time, he managed to recruit several individuals into the Order, including Clipper Wilkinson, Deborah Carter, Jacob Zenger, Stephane Chapheau, Jamie Colley, Duncan Little, and Patience Gibbs.
During the late 18th century, the French Assassins, with Arno Dorian among them, worked to expose the identities of Templars who orchestrated the French Revolution for their own benefit.
During the mid-19th century, Indian Assassins had developed a strong presence in the Sikh Empire, with their main goal being the search for the Koh-i-Noor diamond and the removal of foreign Templars attempting to control India. Around this time, the Sikh Empire was ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who was seen in a mixed light; he was viewed as a murderer by Assassins like Arbaaz Mir for his removal of Muslims in Kashmir, but by others as a hero for his near liberation of India, which ended abruptly with his poisoning by Francis Cotton.
In the late 19th century, the British Brotherhood, under the leadership of Henry Green, restrengthened their ranks from the mid 18th century when the Assassin siblings Jacob and Evie Frye moved to London. While there, they worked to overthrow the Templar presence by establishing a criminal syndicate in order to fight the oppression of poverty.
At the turn of the 20th century, the Assassins' Order had spread as far the Russian Empire, with a strong presence in and around Petrograd. Members of the Narodnaya Volya were in fact members of the Assassin Order. Some known Assassins included Nikolai Orelov and Aleksandr Ulyanov, the older brother of Vladimir Lenin.
During World War I, there was an Assassin on the Western Front, an unidentified medic fighting for the British on the front line. The medic assassinated Erich Albert, a German general and member of the Templars. There was also at least one Assassin active In Ireland during this era, fighting in the country's War of Independence.
During the late 20th and 21st century, however, the Order seemed to have sunk further into hiding, with their numbers fewer than ever. Although it is evident that more existed, only a few were known to be in the Order: Clay Kaczmarek, Callum Lynch, Desmond Miles, Lucy Stillman, Rebecca Crane, Shaun Hastings, Hannah Mueller, Paul Bellamy, Daniel Cross, William Miles, Gavin Banks, Moussa, Lin, Emir, Nathan, Harlan T. Cunningham, Siobhan Dhami, Jasdip Dhami, Adriano Maestranzi, a woman named Janice, and a man named Marco. There were also known groups of Assassins based in São Paulo, Brazil; Moscow, Russia; Osaka, Japan; Denver, Colorado, United States; Whistler, Canada; Georgia and weapon suppliers in the Philippines..
Corruption and fanaticism
- "What would you know of peace, raised by such a soft Mentor as Ah Tabai? If I found a Precursor relic, I would not destroy it! I would use it as early and as often as possible.
My knowledge of the Brotherhood comes from its source. "Laa shay’a waqi’un moutlaq bale kouloun moumine.” I understand these words in a way you never will. My Creed is pure, undiluted by centuries of weakness and compromise."
- ―François Mackandal in a missive to Antó, 1738.[src]
Although restraint from zealotry was a prime aspect of their ideology, ironically the Assassins were not always immune to extremism. As aforementioned, much of this owed to a basic misunderstanding of the creed in itself, or sheer ignorance. In some instances, Assassins even came to break the core tenets of the Order and align themselves closely with Templar ideology, thus corrupting their branch. While in some cases members of a corrupted branch were still known as Assassins, their actions suggested otherwise.
A premier case centers around the Levantine Assassins during the Third Crusade under the leadership of Al Mualim. While this branch was responsible for propagating the progressive ethos that continued to define the Assassins for successive centuries, under Al Mualim's direction, it also anchored itself to dated traditions that Al Mualim's successor, Altaïr, would come to deem superfluous. Among these included abstention from love, which Al Mualim argued bred weakness and threatened resolve. Altaïr opted to reverse this policy, maintaining instead that love reinforced the altruism that he believed defined an Assassin.
Treachery and hypocrisy, however, were the most critical elements of corruption that Al Mualim perpetrated. During this time, the Assassins adhered to a strict hierarchy wherein the Mentor held paramount authority; it was well expected by Altaïr that his indignance after the assassination of William of Montferrat could be punished by immediate execution. Though rumors that Al Mualim drugged his disciples with herbs to induce fanatic loyalty with the promise of paradise were false, he nevertheless reinforced a policy of faith in his judgment—in authority and order—without question. Altaïr found this ironic, in that Assassins were encouraged to be skeptical and ever seeking answers, to respect individual judgment, and yet appeal to authority without doubt. The contradiction may seem hypocritical, but it was merely a component of Al Mualim's deception, as he would later acknowledge his belief that true peace is not compatible with free will.
Ultimately, Al Mualim did preach fundamental Assassin ethos such as that the "illusion" of the world must be transcended through education and reason and that peace must be learned rather than forced. How sincerely he held to these teachings at one point, if ever, is unknown, but by 1191, he colluded with the Templars to enslave the world with the Apple of Eden. His prior denunciation of the Templars' reliance on illusions to instill peace was dishonest; in truth, he subscribed to these same designs, justifying that he was only supplanting human delusions of divinity with a bloodless one. As Robert de Sablé and he himself remarked, his only conflict with the Templars was that he did not wish to share with them control of this New World Order. This was not Altaïr's first experience with betrayal within the Assassin Order. The previous year, Al Mualim's lieutenant Harash, was exposed as a Templar spy though his connections to Rashid's own duplicity is unknown. Accordingly, when Altaïr succeeded Al Mualim as Mentor, he would implement massive reforms to the brotherhood.
Ezio Auditore in Turkey
The operations undertaken by Mackandal and Achilles' branches were major transgressions of Assassin discipline. When Altaïr was first exposed to Templar ideology, he had reflected on its similarity, at least in goals, to the Assassins but cited that a key distinction laid in their approach: the Assassins' methods minimized bloodshed in contrast to the brutality and imprecision of Templar attacks.
Although the legendary Assassin Mentor Ezio Auditore espoused much of the same ideological views, his methods in Constantinople later in life deviated from the standard he had set at his prime in regards to this precision. When he required entry into the Harbor of Theodosius as part of his investigation of Tarik Barleti, Captain of the Janissaries, he resorted to galvanizing the citizens into a riot to break the arsenal's gates defenses under the assumption that stealth was unviable. The ensuing turmoil resulted in several civilian casualties, in spite of Ezio's attempts to protect them, and the harbor was marred by the destruction. His subsequent assassination of Tarik on command by Prince Suleiman proved to be a grave error as the captain turned out to be a mole, not a traitor, though Ezio did question the prince's capricious judgment at the time. Most catastrophically, his destruction of the Byzantine Templars' gunpowder in the underground city of Derinkuyu engulfed the entire city in a firestorm that killed an unknown amount of civilians.
François Mackandal and his Acolytes
The Haitian Assassins under François Mackandal is perhaps the most egregious example, one that Eseosa cited as a disgrace. The Maroon leader blatantly mocked the conventional ethos of the Assassins, believing that the root message of the creed authorized the use of unchecked aggression rather than favoring moderation. In his quest to liberate the Maroons, he defied the ethnic tolerance preached by typical Assassins and their standard reluctance to abuse the power of the Pieces of Eden.
As a result, he alienated himself from the other Assassins, deeming them too pacifistic. Even among his own branch, Babatunde Josèphe regarded him as deranged, fearing that his radicalism would culminate in a gross atrocity. Sure enough, Mackandal eventually plotted the indiscriminate mass murder of all white colonists by poisoning their water supply, violating the Assassins' first tenet. After his failure and execution, his pupil Baptiste sought to carry on his agenda independently of the Assassins, even going as far as to ally with the Templars. The Mentor Agaté, also a student of Mackandal, remained ever as devoted to Mackandal's teachings even as he became an adversary of Baptiste. He therefore exhibited the same blood-thirst that possessed his mentor, exemplified when he felt betrayed at Aveline de Grandpré's show of mercy to the Templar Antonio de Ulloa.
Colonial American Branch
After years of brewing doubts, Shay Cormac defected from the Assassins following the cataclysmic earthquake of Lisbon in 1755. His disenchantment was fostered by a poor understanding of Assassin motivations and goals, compounded by orders to commit assassinations he was not entirely convinced were warranted, and exacerbated by persistent harassment and condescension from his comrades, particularly Louis-Joseph Gaultier, Chevalier de la Vérendrye.
When he accidentally triggered the destruction of the site, and Lisbon with it, his hitherto latent misgivings erupted as an aggrieved conviction: the conviction that the Assassins had knowingly sought the devastation of the city in their mad pursuit for power. Though Shay's assumption was flawed and the tragedy was an accident borne from sheer ignorance, the heated miscommunication that followed nevertheless exposed some severe defects in the management of this division of Assassins, as well as an element of extremism. Neither side in this dispute proved capable of committing to a calm, civil dialogue on the incident, in spite of perspectivism being a traditional corollary of the creed. After the initial dramatic quarrel, no further attempt was made by either party to discuss the matter again, as Shay concluded it was futile and that the only way to prevent further earthquakes was to steal the Voynich manuscript from the Assassins altogether. In catching Shay in this act, the Assassins reacted with relentless punitive fury, with Louis-Joseph outright bombarding the Davenport Homestead with mortar fire from his ship without regards for the safety of his allies and friends just to kill Shay.
The entire scenario revealed a certain decadence that shadowed this fledgling branch. For starters, their swift and violent response against Shay's defection, in spite of their friendship with him, may have stemmed from dogmatic obedience to their Mentor, maintained by Louis-Joseph. This was a clear break from some older traditions (and early reforms) of the Assassins popularized by Altaïr and Ezio, though ironically Louis-Joseph also appeared to personally advocate traditionalism. These Assassins, in their uncompromising attitudes in the face of this altercation, exhibited some strains of absolutist thought. It was Liam's rigid rhetoric, in demonizing the Templar targets assigned to Shay, that pushed him further away.
Corruption in this branch, however, was not limited to mistakes in diplomacy, rigidity in thought, and simple vilification of adversaries; it embodied itself in activities that verged on the brink of terrorism. Several civilians were targeted for death so as to "shock" the public into "silence" when Assassin publicity was threatened. In a substantial breach of the core tenets, the Wolastoqiyik Assassin Kesegowaase, launched an assault against the city of Albany, pillaging the town and sending it into chaos. This was preceded by a similar raid on the Oneida people, who were allied with the British Army, and a massacre after the Battle of Fort William Henry, where Kesegowaase and his Abenaki allies violated the French agreement to escort the defeated British out peacefully.
While it was not unheard of for Assassins to employ gangs in proxy war against Templars, the organized criminal network headed by Hope Jensen was particularly violent and degenerate, sowing unrest throughout New York. With the aid of Le Chasseur and her gangs, Hope sought to manufacture toxic weapons as a means of killing British colonial authorities. The Templar George Monro claimed that the targets extended to innocent civilians as well. While this remained unconfirmed, nevertheless the mere indiscriminate murder of British officials and unregulated disruption to societal peace aligned this branch closer to anarchism, a position not espoused by its contemporary counterpart in France. Rather than anarchic in intention, much of this unrest may have been as part of a wider campaign of sabotage against the British colonies in aid of their ally, the Kingdom of France in the Seven Years' War.
From this, however, arises the matter of the Assassins' alliance with an imperialistic power such as France, especially in light of their fierce conflict in Saint-Domingue over the issue of slavery—a concern Shay himself raised. Liam's response, that the Assassins permeate political borders, is in line with the Assassins' nature as an international organization, yet the Assassins and Templars firmly established their allegiance to France and Britain respectively for this war. During the American Revolution, the legacy of these political relations would ultimately influence Connor into mistakenly equating the British with the Templars altogether, a misconception that exasperated his father, the Templar Grand Master Haytham Kenway. Tragically, his failure to transcend political labels would blind him to the hypocrisy of the Patriots he had wrongly believed would save his peoples' lands.
A far more contentious case was that of the fanatical Master Assassin Pierre Bellec of the Parisian Brotehrhood. In his staunch loyalty to the Assassins, he harbored such a vehement hatred of the Templars that under no circumstances could he ever respect a peace accord with them. So unconditional was his conviction that he equated his Mentor Honoré Mirabeau's conciliatory stance towards Grand Master François de la Serre and eventually, his daughter Élise, with decadence within the Brotherhood. Thus, he deviated from Assassin ideals by becoming absorbed in polarizing superficial labels over judging content of character regardless of title, at least in regards to Templars.
Deeply bitter over what he regarded as a betrayal of the Assassins, he murdered Mirabeau with poison before attempting to recruit his former pupil Arno Dorian to his new cause. In a cruel twist, his concept of purging the Assassin leadership to reforge a glorious new order from the ashes paralleled the contemporary plot of the Templars he loathed so furiously. Arno, opposing the indiscriminate demonization of all Templars, ultimately killed his former master in a personal duel, and towards the end of the French Revolution, perhaps inspired in part by this incident, would affirm that the creed was a warning against fanaticism borne of blind devotion, rather than an endorsement of freedom to do as whatever one wills.
Jack the Ripper
In late 1888, the impoverished, crime-ridden borough of Whitechapel in London saw the rise of Jack the Ripper, a rogue Assassin turned serial killer. The protégé of Jacob Frye, Jack was driven to insanity when the Templars of Crawford Starrick murdered his mother and imprisoned him in Lambeth Asylum, where he suffered prolonged torment at the hands of its doctors. Disillusioned by the Assassin's Creed for its failure to protect his mother, he overthrew his mentor and seized control of London from them, corrupting its syndicate, the Rooks, in the process.
To Jack, the world was mired in depravity, and his answer to this "disease" was to cure it using fear, murder, terror and intimidation. He analogized his gruesome methods as akin to tearing out the blight of the city to purify it. It was his vision to reforge the Assassins under his own personal creed, a creed that relished in sadistic violence and terrorism. Unlike the Assassins, who forbade harming innocents and stressed swift, clean kills, Jack's modus operandi involved prolonged, agonizing deaths, reveling in his victims' horror.
He had no qualms about slaughtering innocents in such a manner if it served him, though he was meticulous and avoided reckless casualties if it compromised his plans. Of his victims, the best known to the public, and the ones that earned him infamy were the prostitutes Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, and Mary Jane Kelly, the former four being Assassins or Assassin impersonators of the actual prostitutes. All were grotesquely mutilated, with the last having her face hacked beyond recognition and her all the organs of her torso eviscerated. Numerous other victims were abducted by his henchmen and imprisoned in the hulk prison ships of Deptford, where they would succumb to the deadly living conditions or be executed by its sociopathic warden, John Billingsworth.
The atrocities committed by Jack the Ripper were so monstrous that the British Assassins went to great lengths to ensure Jack's former ties to their order was never revealed, working with their friend Frederick Abberline of the Metropolitan Police Service to cover up his identity. They feared that his exposure would discredit the order as the public could come to misconstrue the serial killer as an accurate representative of their ways, or even if not so, still blame them for spawning such a madman.
- In the High Middle Ages, an Assassin would prove one's target had been slain by dipping a white feather in their target's blood. This practice had fallen out of use by the Renaissance, but appeared to have been revived by the Victorian Era. Both Jacob and Evie Frye engaged in the practice, though they used white handkerchiefs rather than feathers.
- Rebecca Crane noted that both the Assassin and Templar Orders had existed since before the formation of the Hashshashin and Order of the Knights Templar respectively, and queried what the two organizations called themselves beforehand.
- However, such an instance of the Assassins' earlier name is known: the Roman Assassins called themselves Liberalis Circulum, Latin for Circle of Liberals.
- Historically, the Hashshashin were a sect of radical Persian Shia Muslims who, under Hassan-i Sabbāh, were said to be given a drug called hashish, under the influence of which they experienced "the Garden of Paradise". In exchange, they were expected to murder Sabbah's religious and political rivals, and due to the euphoria they experienced as an effect of the drug, they became unwaveringly loyal to Sabbah.
- The word Hashashashin also gave rise to the word 'assassin'.
- The first and the third tenets of the Creed are mostly based upon the sayings of Islam. The first tenet of not to kill innocents matches with many hadeeths and verses of the Quran. The third and last tenet of the Creed, compromising the Brotherhood, refers to waging war against God in Islam and breaking the trust of other people. In both the Brotherhood and Islam, the punishment for violating these rulings is death.
- It has been suspected that Assassins may carry the Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) gene on their X chromosome, also referred to as the "Warrior Gene". This gene has been suspected to encourage carriers to be more impulsive risk-takers and better able to assess their chances of success under stress. 
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 Assassin's Creed: Revelations
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Assassin's Creed: The Fall - Issue #1
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 Assassin's Creed
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood
- ↑ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48 5.49 5.50 5.51 5.52 5.53 5.54 5.55 5.56 5.57 5.58 5.59 5.60 5.61 5.62 5.63 5.64 5.65 Assassin's Creed II
- ↑ 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 Assassin's Creed III
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 Assassin's Creed: Syndicate
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Assassin's Creed: The Fall - Deluxe Edition
- ↑ 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 Assassin's Creed: Unity
- ↑ Although the organization is irreligious and professes to an agnostic philosophy, Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad and Arno Dorian described the creed in strongly atheist terms as well, having specifically been agnostic atheists. Despite this, individual members may practice various faiths—an example being Luis de Santángel who was a Jew.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Assassin's Creed: The Essential Guide
- ↑ 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag
- ↑ Freedom Cry
- ↑ 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 Assassin's Creed: Rogue
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Assassin's Creed: Embers
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Assassin's Creed: Altaïr's Chronicles
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Assassin's Creed: Project Legacy
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Assassin's Creed: The Fall - Issue #2
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 Assassin's Creed: Project Legacy
- ↑ Assassin's Creed - The Ankh of Isis Trilogy
- ↑ Darby McDevitt's Twitter
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Assassin's Creed: Encyclopedia
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Assassin's Creed: The Secret Crusade
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 24.2 Assassin's Creed: Altaïr's Chronicles
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 Assassin's Creed: Bloodlines
- ↑ Assassin's Creed: Revelations - Abstergo Files
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 27.2 Assassin's Creed II - Auditore Family Crypt
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Assassin's Creed: Lineage
- ↑ Assassin's Creed: Revelations novel
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 Assassin's Creed: Revelations - Discover Your Legacy
- ↑ Assassin's Creed Chronicles: China
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Assassin's Creed: Brahman
- ↑ Assassin's Creed Chronicles: India
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 Assassin's Creed: The Fall - Issue #3
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 Assassin's Creed: Revelations - The Lost Archive
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 Assassin's Creed: Initiates
- ↑ Assassin's Creed: Syndicate - Jack the Ripper (DLC)
- ↑ Assassin's Creed: Renaissance
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 39.2 Assassin's Creed II: Discovery
- ↑ Assassin's Creed II - Battle of Forlì (DLC)
- ↑ Assassin's Creed III: Liberation
- ↑ Assassin's Creed: Syndicate - Database: The Assassin Brotherhood
- ↑ Assassin's Creed: DNA