Construction of the aqueduct began under the Roman Emperor Caligula in 38 CE. He was assassinated, however, by Leonius in 41 CE, before he could see his project to fruition. The aqueduct was later completed in 52 CE under Emperor Claudius.
The aqueduct went between being functional to being unused throughout the years that followed. It was restored by Emperor Vespasian in 71 CE and Emperor Titus in 81 CE.
- Several sections along the aqueduct, all of which could be found in Rome's Antico district, were in disrepair by the early 16th century and could be renovated by architects, provided Ezio Auditore da Firenze paid them to do so.
- The Aqua Claudia is the location of one of Subject 16's rifts.
- The acqueduct's database entry refers to the structure as Acquedotto Claudia; said term is incorrect in Italian as "acquedotto" is masculine and "Claudia" is feminine. It is instead referred to as Acquedotto Claudio. The error probably comes from the aqueduct's Latin name, Aqua Claudia, literally meaning 'Claudio's water'.